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Transcript of Nuclear Waste
- waste is concentrated and isolated Dilute and disperse
- waste is diluted acceptable levels and is put back into the enviroment Delay and decay
- waste is stored and its radioactivity is decreased
natrually through decay of the radioisotopes in it Definition
- nuclear waste is the radioactive by-products
from the operation of: nuclear power plants, nuclear medicine, and nuclear weapons Waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use the radiactive material. Common sources of waste - nuclear power plant operations
- nuclear fuel processing
- nuclear fuel cycle
- leftover matierial from nuclear weapons Technology used for prevention of: Low level waste
-steam reforming exposes waste to high temperatures
-Incineration is usually used in conjunction with shredding which cuts the low level radioactive waste into smaller pieces. Intermediate level waste
- waste is seperated into cement packaging called immobilization in stainless steel drums High level waste
- waste is disposed in borosilicate glass and is heated until it is in powder form Levels of waste Low level waste
- mainly from hospitals
- low concentrations of radioactivity Intermediate level waste
- mainly metals, with smaller quantities of organic materials, inorganic sludges, cement, graphite, glass and ceramics High level waste
- waste from nuclear fuel processing plants Radioactive isotopes and equations Tin-126
Sn Sb+ e+
1/2 life 230k years Strontium-90
Sr Y+ e
1/2 life 64 hours Zirconium-93
Zr Nb+ e+
1/2 life 1.53 million years Present Future - Yucca mountains
Advantages of nuclear waste - low carbon dioxide - efficient Disadvantages of nuclear waste - time consuming - more plants means more chances for accidents - targets for terriost attacks - radioactive waste can be used for nuclear weapons Uranium-238
U Th+ He - uranium is only expected to last 30 to 60 more years