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MAybe she's born with it

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by

Madeline Swanson

on 9 January 2016

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Transcript of MAybe she's born with it

Outline
Thesis
History
Our Theory
Previous Studies
Methodology/Evaluation
Data
Textual Analysis
Conclusion
References
Invisibility in Fashion
Previous Studies
“Magazines can be seen as the voice of the fashion industry. As cultural objects, they narrate dominant cultural trends”. (The World According to “Vogue”: The Role of Cultures in International Fashion Magazines)
Our Theory
High fashion magazines use the "ideal american" model (thin, white, blonde, blue eyed) to sell their issues because they believe that his beauty standard is universally desired and will set the tone for the many brands that are featured in their magazine.
lack of diversity

Thesis
Analyzing the lack of diversity through the covers and editorial photo shoots of American high fashion magazines to determine what sells in the fashion industry.
Miss Underrepresented: The Unrealistic beauty standard in American high fashion magazines
1966
Detroit model Donyale Luna
Vogue allegedly made this stylistic decision to avoid scaring off people at the newsstands at a time when black faces in pop culture were still few and far between, particularly in the fashion world.
Top selling
magazines in
the U.S
Methodology
four fashion magazines
last 3 months
covers and editorial photo shoots
lack of diversity
features in models
Seventeen
Cosmopolitan
Elle
Vogue
Conclusion
References
45 ads/138 pages
5 black
2 asian
2 latina
36 white
-pop star: Meghan Trainor
-pale skin, light eyes, blonde hair, tiny waist
-unapologetic, confident
-poreless, smooth flowy hair
-modest
-gave her a sense of dignity
-very thin, pale (skin, eyes, hair). western type of beauty
-sporty but feminine
-wide eyed and open (surprised?) mouth
-socks with heels, toddler chic, childlike
-edgy and dangerous but innocent and naive
-pop star: Gwen Stefani
-she's older but looks youthful and poreless
-pale, narrow nose, angular features

87 ads/224 pages
12 black
5 latina
3 asian
67 white
-cosmo used mainly pop stars &
actresses in their editorials.
-all of whom just so happened
to be white women.
-same western features

-pop star: Katy Perry
- pale skin, dark slicked back hair
-large round blue eyes, narrow nose
-no body hair at all, or pores, WHERE ARE THEY?!
-her pose is sexual, futuristic, in control
-she's taking up space on the cover
199 ads/493 pages
12 black
8 asian
8 latina
171 white
"Dance Hall Days"
-location: Jamaica
-model: african decent, her hair is natural, dark complexion, square face, very tall and lanky
-poses: her legs are open in most of the photos or she's pulling up her skirt. She's either leaning against something or seated.
audience gaze: she isn't being looked down upon but that we've caught her in her natural environment,
fashion is racist
"The implication was, 'What, Elle, you can't put her big, fat body on the magazine?'" she said slightly joking. "'Why? 'Cause she's just fat and gruesome? Why can't we look at her beautiful fat body?'" -Mindy Kaling
-January 2014, Elle featured four leading ladies of television on their covers. All of whom, except for Mindy Kaling, were full body shots in color. While Kaling's cover was black and white showing only her face.
"women of color are marginalized...because these features are relegated to the periphery of pop culture, when a woman of color is chosen as a cover girl it is a big deal, because of the impact it has on those who feel confined by these often negatively stigmatized traits." -Huffington Post
-a white pop star and a white model
-they look identical
-same blonde hair, same makeup, clothing, etc.
-they're embracing in a "sisterly love" way

264 ads/604 pages
17 black
12 asian
2 latino
233 white
-off-beat model types
-not "typical" beauty standards.
eyes far apart, extremely lanky, long narrow faces
-they are turned into walking "art installations"
-not even people anymore. walking objects
Start: 1892
Editor in chief: Anna Wintour
Audience: 18+ (Female: 87.5% Male: 12.5%
Circulation in U.S: approx. 1,229,880

Start: 1945 (France) -----> 1988 (U.S.)
Editor in Chief: Roberta Myers
Audience: 18-49 (all women)
Circulation (worldwide): 5,794,000
Start: 1886 (literary) ----> 1965 (womens)
Editor in chief: Joanna Coles
Audience: 18-49 (all women)
Circulation in U.S: 3,032,211 (per issue)
Start: 1944
Editor in Chief: Ann Shoket
Audience: 10-17 girls
Circulation in U.S: 2,010,619 (per issue)
"Vogue magazine was started in 1892. In over 118 years and 1,416 covers, only 14 have featured minorities of any kind. That's less than 1%"
"The March issue of Vogue Italia saw a few eyebrows raised as the notoriously pale Dutch model Saskia de Brauw had her skin darkened and tribal makeup applied to her face. Posing with stuffed African animals."

Why not just photograph a black model?
"The absence of people of color on the runways and photography reinforces to our young girls that they're not beautiful enough, that they're not acceptable enough," said Iman, high fashion model to CNN.

"The diversity that we live in, the world that we live in, is not what is shown [in fashion]. That to me is the concern."
Vogue is the standard for fashion

“Moreover, we find that certain ideals of female beauty are more prevalent than others in media formats examined.” (Beauty before the Eyes of Beholders: The Cultural Encoding of Beauty Types in Magazine Advertising and Music Television.)
lack of diversity
Urban philosopher, Jay-Z, said:

"men lie. women lie, numbers don't."
http://www.seventeenmediakit.com/r5/cob_page.asp?category_code=circ
http://www.condenast.com/brands/vogue/media-kit/print
http://www.ellemediakit.com/r5/showkiosk.asp?listing_id=4165173
http://www.cosmomediakit.com/r5/showkiosk.asp?listing_id=4785160&category_code=circ&category_id=27808
http://www.complex.com/style/2012/09/a-history-of-racism-in-fashion/vogue-first-black-cover
http://www.slice.ca/fashion/photos/most-controversial-vogue-covers/#!72e6e4ee051d180ffe19a1f2310420c5
http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/17/living/models-runway-race/
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