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Rise and Fall of Rome

History of Roman Kingdom, Republic and Empire

Brad Coulter

on 9 October 2015

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Transcript of Rise and Fall of Rome

The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire
How a Village on the Tiber took over the World
Founded on a River
Legend says two twins of Mars (The God of War) were abandoned on the
Tiber River
Romulus and Remus raised by a she-wolf
Romulus and Remus fought over who would be king
wins and founds a city named Rome in
753 BCE
Death to Tyrants!
last king of Rome
was an Etruscan named Tarquinius Superbus.
Built the Temple of Jupiter Maximus
Abused power as a king
Overthrown and exiled from Rome in 509 BCE
Roman Republic
Vowing never to live under a tyrant again they formed a Republic
Republic- form of government (thought of by Plato) where the people elect representatives to make government decisions
Senators would vote on important issues
2 Consuls oversaw the senate and were elected every year
In times of crisis a dictator would take power and give it back to the people after victory
Politicians were also generals
Five Good Emperors
The 5 Emperors from 96 to 180 AD
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius and Marcus Aurelius
Not a bloodline
Spread Roman culture and language throughout the empire
Safe, prosperous empire where the people had rights
Called "Brilliant center of human civilization"
Built many great monuments and public works
Rome Key Terms
The Punic Wars
- Phoenician city on the coast of North Africa
Experts in Naval trade and warfare
Controlled the Mediterranean Sea and all trade before 264 BCE
Both Rome and Carthage wanted to control the Island of Sicily
Marius and Sulla
Must own land before 100 BCE to join Roman army
Marius popular with troops reforms army
Let's non land owners join army
Career soldiers
First time troops support general, not Rome!
Marius was a populare/ Sulla patrician
Marius took over Rome while Sulla was away
Sulla chose to return to Rome with an army
First time a Roman general brought their army into Rome 88 BCE
Marius's supporters killed, remains thrown into River
Sulla now in complete power, retires to private life 80 BCE
First Triumvirate
3 Headed Political Rule 60 BCE
Crassus (wealthy older general, fire service)
Pompey (had gangs supporting his power)
Julius Caesar (Renowned Roman general and politician)
Broke up after Crassus dies in battle 53 BCE
Pompey and Caesar become enemies
Caesar Crosses the Rubicon
"The Die is Cast"
To bring an army into Rome
Pompey flees and is killed by the Ptolemy's in Egypt
7 Kings of Rome
Rome was a kingdom that was ruled by 7 kings for over 200 years
from their neighbors Latium
When they formed they only had men and kidnapped all of the neighboring women in a trick
They merged with their neighbors the Etruscans and traded each reign on who would rule.
"Rape of the Sabine Women"
Ancestry Room
Ancestor Mold
Gaius Mucius Scaevola
"I am Gaius Mucius, a citizen of Rome. I came here as an enemy to kill my enemy, and I am as ready to die as I am to kill. We Romans act bravely and, when adversity strikes, we suffer bravely."
"Watch this," he declared. "so that you know how cheap the body is to men who have their eye on great glory." Mucius thrust his right hand into a fire which was lit for sacrifice and held it there without giving any indication of pain.
Porsena, shocked at the youth's bravery, dismissed him from the Etruscan camp, free to return to Rome saying "Go back, since you do more harm to yourself than me".
Gaius Mucius Scaevola
Roman Military
The Roman army was divided into Legions
of around 5000 troops
Commanded in smaller units
Rigorous physical and weapon training
New recruits up front
Carried Pila, Gladius and Scutum
Fought with Calvary at the sides
Trajan's Market
Marc Antony and Cleopatra
Julius Caesar
First Punic War
Fighting over Sicily breaks out in 264 BCE
Rome only has No Navy in a Sea War
Rome finds a Carthaginian ship and copies it
Ship Draw Bridge - Land Battles
In 241 BCE Carthage surrenders
Hamilcar Barca
returns angry, undefeated in battle
Rome draws up unfair treaty
Second Punic War
Third Punic War
Hamilcar Barca returns angry
Spreads hatred of Rome to sons
His oldest son,
Hannibal, grows up to raise an army for Carthage
After 23 years of abuses
convinces Carthage to attack Rome
Gathers together +100,000 Men and 40 War Elephants
Can't go across Mediterranean
In 218 BCE Hannibal crosses the Alps into Italy
1/2 of his troops die, but gains allies against Rome
Massacres Roman army at Trebia (218), Lake Trasimene (217) and Cannae (216)
Fabian Tactic
- Avoiding combat
Hannibal wears down by 203
Scipio Africanus takes army to Carthage
In 201 BCE Hannibal defeated at Zama ending the War
"Carthago Delenda Est" - Cato
149 BCE Rome invades Carthage
Seiges the city and loots everything
Sells the people into slavery
Burns down the city
Salts the soil
146 BCE War ends, Rome controls the Mediterranean

Punic Wars (1st, 2nd, 3rd)
First Triumvirate
Julius Caesar
Roman Civil War
Augustus (Octavian)
Pax Romana
5 Good Emperors
Emperor (First Citizen)/Empire
Fall of Rome
Social Order
Rome Divided in 2 Classes
- wealthy landowning elites
- everyone else
Politicians who used plebeian cause to get support called

Julius Caesar
Named Dictator for Life 48 BCE
Makes sweeping changes in Rome
Made Cleopatra Queen in Egypt and impregnates her
Starts acting like Royalty
Assasinated in the senate in 44 BCE by senator
"Thus always to Tyrants"
Roman Civil War
After Julius Caesar's death revealed he left everything to nephew Octavian

He and Marc Antony, Caesar's top General, become most influential Romans
Antony moves east to secure the empire, but leaves his wife for Cleopatra
Married to Cleopatra and having Caesar's Son make him look like a monarchy
Octavian goes to war with Antony in 33 BCE
Agrippa, Octavian's best friend and general defeat Antony/Cleopatra at
Actium 31 BCE
They both flee and kill themselves 30 BCE
After Civil War won Octavian renames himself Augustus
"First Citizen"
not King (Emperor) in
27 BCE
End Of the Roman Republic
Made major changes in Rome
"Found Rome in Brick and left it in Marble"
Wide spread Aqueducts
Began Pantheon
Began "Pax Romana" 200 Years of Peace in Rome
Marc Antony
Marc Antony and Cleopatra
Battle of Actium 31 BCE
Augustus Caesar
Roman Engineering
Rome's huge success = brilliance in engineering
Weapons designs
Key Stone of Arches
Triumphal Arches/Columns
Use of Marble
(Whole City Marble)
Pantheon (Domed Temple to the Gods) 126 CE
Colosseum (70,000 Seat Arena) 80 CE
Christianity in Rome
The Romans banned the Jews from living in Jerusalem.
Jesus born 0 and Crucified in 33 CE
Killed for being called King of a "new Kingdom"
Christians taught that their religion was the only true faith.
They refused to honor the emperor as a god and rejected military service.
Emperor 306 to 330 CE
Rome was on the decline and split before him
Last to make positive changes for Rome
Moved Capital to Constantinople in 330 CE
Converted to Christianity on his deathbed
Decline of Rome
Rome began to have inflation
Under Diocletian the empire split into East and West
Barbarians started to be a part of the army instead of Citizens
Political infighting and invasions took plac
Fall of Western Rome
Visigoths sack the city 410 CE
The city of Rome and last Roman Emperor (Romulus Augustus) fall in 476 CE
Eastern Rome lives on as Byzantium based in Constantinople
Fall of Rome 476 CE
World History
Part 1 Over
Only write things in bold
Full transcript