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Copy of Cognitive and Perceptual Assessment and Intervention

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M Rafidah

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Cognitive and Perceptual Assessment and Intervention

Cognitive and Perceptual Assessment and Intervention
Thank you for your attention!
Summary of your Learning
To develop an understanding of cognition and perception and how cognitive and perceptual impairments influence occupation
To become familiar with the role of the occupational therapist in cognitive and perceptual assessment and treatment
To explore commonly used assessments and generate intervention strategies that address cognitive and perceptual impairments
To apply knowledge acquired throughout the workshop to several clinical case scenarios
Interrelated processes including the ability to perceive, organize, assimilate, and manipulate information to enable the person to process information, learn, and generalize
What we do with the information our senses tell us
Seven components of cognition
How we understand our environment
How we process and interpret information from our senses
Easier to consider what distorts perception
Today's Objectives...
Literature suggests there is still no clear distinction
Perception refers to the brain's awareness of the information
Cognition refers to the processing of the information
Cognition and Perception
The Multidisciplinary Team
OT Role in the Multidisciplinary Team
Information Processing Theory
Cognitive Rehabilitation
Cognitive Retraining
General approaches to evaluation...
(from an OT perspective, of course)
General approaches to intervention...
(from an OT perspective, of course)
See you in your break-out rooms at 11:00 am
Break out rooms...
Standardized assessment
Direct observation of function
Dynamic assessment
Quantifies severity of impairments
Establishes a baseline
Often population-specific

Things to consider...
Evaluates current performance
Difficult to generalize
Relies heavily on verbal skills
Sometimes culturally-biased
Substantial false-negative rates
Standardized Assessments
Identifies underlying processes that contribute to occupational performance issues
Rates task performance and amount of cueing and assistance required

Things to consider...
Impairments may not be apparent in familiar activities
May not be predictive of performance in natural environments
Direct Observation of Function
Uses cues, mediation, feedback, task alterations
Evaluates how performance can be facilitated
Natural link to intervention

Things to consider...
Dependence on cues
Dynamic Assessment
(1) Do I need to clarify the presence of a cognitive-perceptual impairment?
(2) Do I need to establish a baseline as a measurement of change or outcome of intervention?
(3) Do I need information to guide intervention?
(4) Do I need to understand the effect of impairments on occupational performance?
Questions to consider when choosing assessments...
Change, alter, or structure activity demands or context to maintain or improve client’s function
Designed in collaboration with client
Support to caregivers
May require ongoing implementation and monitoring
Effects limited to activity or environment that is adapted
Success dependent on follow-through by client and caregivers
Adaptation of Activity or Context
Functional Task Training
Task-specific training within natural context via practice and repetition
Possible for clients with minimal awareness of impairments
Taps into procedural or implicit memory
Takes time
Dependency on cues
Difficulty generalizing
Changes underlying skills
Improves core skills to increase generalization
Also known as ‘transfer training’ approach
Taps into brain plasticity
Cognitive Retraining
Remediation and compensation
Improving impairments
Teaches new adaptive strategies
Paper-and-pencil exercises
Tabletop activities
Functional activities
Multicontext Approach
Toglia’s interactional model of cognition
Awareness, task analysis and feedback, strategies
Facilitates transfer of learning
Mental rehearsal
self cues
(1) How much change is expected from the client?
(2) How much learning and generalization are expected?
(3) How much do the activity demands or context need to be changed or altered to meet the client’s capabilities?
(4) Is the client responsive to cues?
(5) Is the client aware of his/her difficulties?
Questions to consider when choosing interventions...
Restoring cognitive capacities through practice, exercise and stimulation with the expectation that these gains will translate to improvements in tasks and activities
Planning and problem solving behaviour
Broadening a person's ability to manage increasing amounts of information through the use of mental and behavioural strategies
Family and client are members
No single discipline responsible for evaluating and treating cognitive-perceptual impairments
Team goals and specific discipline goals need to be identified
SLP, neuropsychologist, PT, OT
Knowledge of occupations
Task/activity analysis
Analysis of how cognitive-perceptual deficits affect the demands of activities
What information can we provide the team with?
Help the client to see patterns of behaviours across different activities
Help to transfer new skills across activities
Emphasize positive reinforcement
Demonstrate the positive effects of interdisciplinary collaboration
An integrated approach will...
The seven components of cognition...
Problem Solving
(and a fun way to remember them)
Components of perception
Time awareness
Spatial relations
Vision problems
Visual neglect
What does this mean for OT?
Cognition and perception deficits ultimately affect occupational performance
Developed an understanding of cognition and perception and how cognitive and perceptual impairments influence occupation
Developed a familiarity with the role of the occupational therapist in cognitive and perceptual assessment and treatment
Explored commonly used assessments and generated intervention strategies that address cognitive and perceptual impairments in a problem-based environment
Abreu, B.C., Toglia, J.P. (1987). Cognitive rehabilitation: A model for occupational therapy. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41(7), 439-448.

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BK 4


ADLs, IADLs, education, work, play, leisure, social participation
NK 3014
Terapi Carakerja Neurologi
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