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Chapter 25- The Conservative Tide
Transcript of Chapter 25- The Conservative Tide
A Conservative Movement Emerges
Conservative republican who one the 1980 election.
Ran on many issues such as: abortion, the teaching of evolution in schools and prayer in public schools.
Reagan also believed in less government control, lower taxes and traditional values.
Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush
was Reagan's vice-president, and then became president in 1988.
Continued Reagan's legacy by promising, "Read my lips: no new taxes".
Stressed his commitment to the conservative ideas of Moral Majority.
Social Concerns in the 1980s
Foreign Policy After the Cold War
Conservative Movement Builds
Have been building up since Senator Barry Goldwater ran for president in 1964.
Argued that state government, businesses, and individuals needed more freedom.
provide guaranteed benefits to a particular group.
By 1980 government was spending 300 billion annually.
Many taxpayers resented entitlement programs
The New Right
1970s, right wing grass-roots group.
Supported and promoted single issues that reflected their key interests.
Focused on controversial social issues.
requires employers and educational institutes to give special consideration for women and minority groups.
Was heavily criticized by New Right.
Was seen as
favoring one group over another on the bias of race or gender.
Conservatives grew in strength in the mid-1960s.
was an alliance of business leaders, middle-class voters, disaffected Democrats, and fundamentalist Christian groups.
The Moral Majority
Religion played a key role in the growing strength of the conservatives.
The Moral Majority was a group consisting mostly of evangelical and fundamentalist Christians.
Reaganomics- Step 1
Cuts on social programs.
Cuts on entitlement programs
Urban mass transit.
Reaganomics- Step 2
- Theory that says if people paid fewer taxes then they would save more money. Then banks can loan more money to businesses.
Reagan lowered income tax by 25%
Reaganomics- Step 3
Increased Defense Spending-
Between 1981 and 1984 the Defense Department budget almost doubled.
Reagan asked scientists to develop a defense system that would protect Americans.
Strategic Defense Initiative
, was the official name for the system, but it was way ahead of it time and was estimated to cost trillions of dollars.
Recession and Recovery
Lasting from July 1981 until November 1982, this was the most severe recession since the Great Depression.
In early 1983, an economic upturn began as consumers went on a spending spree.
The stock market surged, unemployment declined, and the gross national product went up by almost 10 percent.
Despite the recovery taking place, federal spending was still higher then federal revenue.
At the end of Reagan's first term, the national debt nearly doubled.
Judicial Power Shifts Right
Reagan appoints conservative justices.
Sandra Day O' Connor
, Antonin Scalia, and Anthony M, Kennedy.
O' Connor was the first women justice ever to be appointed.
Deregulating the Economy
Reagan reduced the size and power of the government through
, the cutting back of federal regulation of industry.
Reagan also cut back on the budget for the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Reagan and Bush won the Republican nominations for reelection.
Walter Mondale won the Democratic Party's nomination and chose
, first woman on a major party ballot.
Reagan and Bush win by a landslide.
George Bush, Reagan's vice-president, ran for the Republicans.
Micheal Dukakis ran for the Democrats.
America saw no reason for change, so Bush won the 1988 election.
Health, Education, and Cities
One of the major health problems was
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
Abortion was a heavily debated topic in the 1980s, especially after the 1973 court ruling of Roe v. Wade.
The Reagan administration launched a war against drug abuse, and Nancy Reagan launched an antidrug campaign with the slogan "Just say no".
Education was a problem since American students were lagging behind the rest of the world.
Inequality in the Workforce
While women employment was increasing the pay was still unfair.
In 1992, women earned 75 cents for every dollar men earned.
To fix this problem,
was proposed, this system says that jobs would be rated on the basis of education required, physical strength required, and pay rates that reflected each jobs requirements.
Political Gains for African Americans
African Americans made political gains during the 1980s, but suffered economically.
L. Douglas Wilder
became the first African American governor.
ran for Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988.
Latinos gained political representation-
became secretary of education
Antonia Coello Novello
was named to the post of surgeon generals.
Native Americans spoke out for their rights and they wanted ancestral lands returned.
Asian Americans were the second fastest growing minority group, and they had the high unemployment and poverty.
The gay rights movement called for civil rights and equality.
Changes in Russia
becomes the general secretary of the communist party in the Soviet Union in 1985.
He advocated for a policy known as
, which allowed open criticism and freedom of press.
In 1985, he planed for
, which gives government less control of the economy.
Also, Gorbachev got the
INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Treaty)
signed, which eliminated two classes of weapon systems in Europe.
Soviet Union Collapses
Gorbachev's democratic ideals led to change.
In 1991, 14 non-Russian republics declared their independence from the Soviet Union.
After 74 years, the Soviet Union dissolved
President Boris Yeltsin of Russia and resident Bush signed the START II pact designed to cut both nation's nuclear arsenals, and to signify the end of the Cold War.
Communism In China
In the 1980s the Chinese Communist government loosened its grip on business and eliminated price controls.
Students in China began to demand freedom of speech.
In 1989, a large demonstration in Beijing's
included a version of the Statue of Liberty to symbolize their struggle for democracy.
The Chinese premier, Li Peng ordered for the military to crush the protestors and the pro-democracy movement collapsed.
Conflicts In Nicaragua
Between 1977 and 1979, Nicaragua was engulfed in a civil war.
, were rebels who toppled the dictatorship in 1979, got economic aid from president Carter.
In 1981, Reagan cut aid for the Sandinistas and threw his support to the
, who were against the Sandinistas.
In 1990, Nicaraguan president Daniel Ortega held free elections and Violeta de Chamorro, a Contra supporter, won the election.
Grenada and Panama
President Reagan sent about 2,000 troops to overthrow the pro-Cuban government , which was replaced with one friendlier to the US, in 1983.
In 1989, Bush sent more than 20,000 soldiers to overthrow and arrest General Manuel Antonio Noriega on charges of drug trafficking.
In 1983, a terrorist group in Iran took a number of Americans hostage in Lebanon.
Reagan urged U.S. allies to not sell arms to Iran.
In 1986, Reagan approved the sale of arms to Iran in exchange for the hostages.
Reagan then sent the profits from this illegal arms sales to the Contras in Nicaragua.
Many of Reagan's officials were investigated and prosecuted, but in 1992, Bush pardoned a number of them.
Persian Gulf War
Iraq and its leader Saddam Hussein fought a prolonged war against Iran.
In 1990, Iraq claimed ownership of the oil-rich nation of Kuwait, and they invaded.
On January 16, 1991President Bush launched
Operation Desert Storm
, which was a massive aerial assault, to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi control.
On February 28, 1991, Bush orders a cease-fire, and Kuwait was liberated.
Bush's Domestic Policies
Bush was not very successful on the domestic front.
He was hurt by rising deficits and a recession that began in 1990 and lasted almost though 1992.
Bush then was forced to raise taxes, despite his campaign pledge.
His approval rating had dropped to 49 percent by 1992.