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Astronomy Unit Presentation

By: Desmond Dahl
by

Desmond Dahl

on 26 October 2012

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Transcript of Astronomy Unit Presentation

Astronomy Unit Presentation By: Desmond Dahl The Sun The Sun is the center of our universe. The Greek scientists hypothesized that the Sun, the Moon and all the other planets rotated around Earth. That thought from the Greeks changed when Italian Astronomer Galileo Galilei discovered that the planets rotate around the Sun. Galilei had watched Venus, on his telescope , making it's full rotation around the Sun. From that day forward, the Sun is the center of our Solar System. The Sun is a medium star and it's gases include hydrogen and helios. Helios is helium in greek. Helios is a greek god who is the personification or symbol of the Sun. Did you know? Did you know that between Mars and Jupiter is the Asteroid Belt. The middle core is about 27,000,000 degrees and it's outer layer is the Chromosphere. The photosphere is where the light and other energy forms are released. The Convective zone is where the heat is released and the Radiative Zone is above the core. Helios, the god of the Sun. Did you know? The Greeks were the first to discover the planets. Mercury is the first planet in the solar system. Mercury has no moons and is very hot because it is closest to the Sun. Mercury is the smallest planet. In 1974, the first american spacecraft mission was Mariner 10. Mariner 10 took close photographs of Mercury's surface. This spacecraft mission onto Mercury ended in 1975. It is named after the roman god Hermes, who is a messenger to all the messenger gods. Mercury Venus Venus is second in the Solar System. Venus is one of the hottest planets. Venus has no moons either and is covered with a thick amount of gas clouds. The reason it is the hottest planet is because the gassy clouds trap heat. The planet is named after the roman goddess of love and beauty (Aphrodite). Earth Earth is the third planet in the Solar System. Earth has a thick-medium atmosphere. It is the only known planet with liquid water and seventy percent of Earth is covered in water. Thirty percent of Earth is covered by land. We have day and nights because the Earth rotates. We have seasons because of the Earth's tilt. Did you know?

Nicholas Copernicus , a Polish Astronomer, claimed that the moon rotated around the Earth. He also said Earth and all the other planets revolved around the Sun. Inner Planets Mariner 10 Hermes Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It's atmosphere contains 3% nitrogen, 95% carbon dioxide, 1.6% argon. It's atmosphere also contains a low amount of oxygen, water vapor, and other gases. Phobos and Deimos are it's two moons. In Greek Mythology, Ares, god of war, had two sons with the goddess of love (Aphrodite). There sons names were Phobos and Deimos, who were named after these two moons. Olympus Mons, on mars, is the largest volcano in the Solar System. In Latin, Olympus Mons means "Mount Olympus" where many Greeks believe it is the dwelling or house of the gods and goddesses. This planet is named after Ares, the god of war. Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty. Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the Solar System. Outer Planets Jupiter Ares, god of war. As you all should know and maybe already know, Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System. Jupiter is known to have a storm which is the Great Red Spot. Jupiter has thin rings, you will have to get a close look to see it's rings. It is named after the ruler of all Roman gods and goddesses and the sky (Zeus). Some of Jupiter's moons are Amalthea, Himalia, Elara, Pasphae, Sinope, Lysithea. Jupiters major moons (the Galilean moons) Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Jupiter has a total of 63 moons (+31 other moons). Saturn Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. It is a gas planet. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,100 mph. Saturn is famous for it's rings. Some of it's major moons are Titan, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione , Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Hyperion, Prometheus, and Pandora (Shepard moons). Saturn has 56 satellites. Uranus Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. Voyager 2 took pictures of Uranus in 1986. Uranus spins sideways and the theory was a asteroid or comet hit Uranus making spin the way it spins. Uranus has 27 satellites and thin dark rings. It's atmosphere is made out of hydrogen, helium, and methane. It's major moon's are Cordelia, Ophelia, (Shepard moons); Bianea, Cressida, Desdemona, Juliet, and 46 other unnamed moon's. Neptune Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun. The planet is named after the god of sea (Poseidon). Neptune's contains methane gas that gives it the blue color Neptune's atmosphere all consist of hydrogen and helium. Neptune's winds speed up to about 400 mph. Major moon's are Triton, Nereid, Naid, Thalassa. Neptune has about 13 moons. Galaxies Galaxies are space systems that contain dust, gas, and stars. The three types of galaxies are spiral, elliptical and irregular. Spiral galaxies- what we live in (Milky Way), are flat disk with arms. Elliptical galaxies are mostly round and consist of lot's of older stars. They appear oval shaped. Giant elliptical galaxies are about two million light years away. Irregular galaxies have no shape. The Universe was believed to be born from the Big Bang theory which happened about 12 or 15 billion years ago. It was a massive explosion that supposedly made the Universe. Years ago, the Sun and Solar System was created. A disk and of gas and debris swirling around the Sun gave birth to the planets we know of. Irregular galaxy Elliptical galaxy Milky Way Universe Light Years A light year is defined a International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels. It is the distance that light travels in one year. Light travels at about 9.5 trillion in one year. Mass and distance effects on gravity Tools and Technology used to study space Telescopes Satellites Space Probes Telescopes like refracting or reflecting are instruments used to see space. Reflecting uses curved mirror to direct light. The light reflects and makes the image coming from the sky. Refracting telescope use convex lenses. Light passes through the convex lens and makes the image. Satellites are sometimes for planets moons, for earth we have a moon and a satellite that deals with technology. The satellites we have revolves around us like the moon and some satellites are communication satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space probes are used for scientist to discover new planets and space of course. A space probe is a type of machine that sends information to Earth. Space probes carry things like cameras , equipment and other things. Other space objects Comets A comet is an icy small Solar System body that you can see the tail and coma. A comet consists of a nucleus, a coma, a dust tail, and a gas tail. Two types of comets are Comet Hale-Bopp which was discovered in 1995. Halley's comet was discovered by English astronomer, Edmund Halley. Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites A meteoroid that burns up in Earth's atmosphere is called a meteor. If it strikes Earth, it is called a meteorite. Most meteoroids are large enough, it might not burn up completely in the atmosphere. The more mass a body has, the stronger will be its own gravitational force. Gravity is also the mutual attraction between two bodies. The earth and moon are some good examples,both are massive and each exerts a gravitational force of its own. The earth's gravity is stronger, but if the moon had no mass, the earth wouldn't have much of a pull on it.
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