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Transcript of National Security
- American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers
-American Foreign Policy: An Overview
-The War on Terrorism
-The Politics Of Defense Policy
-The New Global Agenda
-Understanding National Security Policymaking
American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers
By: Mady Strauss & Cole Peck
AFP: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers
- 9/11 hits and America and its people realize that its susceptible to unconventional attacks from foreign threats
-Leads many politicains (politician + McCain?) to wonder- what do we do as the worlds only remaining superpower?
-Do we, as America, fight this threat head on and engage in fighting terrorits (probably not as bad as terrorists) and nuclear threats?
-essentially, are we going to be the worlds police force and act as as everyone's over protective father?? (...so are we the police or the father?)
Instruments of foreign policy
-military: the U.S has, in recent years, used its military and its pretense in order to "influence" foreign country elections, cations (does he influence chemistry?), etc. (the etc means that Cole probably ran out of things to add...)
: also used to lower threat levels in foreign countries- examples: taking Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq (probably the only example he has)
Economics: in recent years economic threats have become more and more powerful
: trade regulations, tariff policies, and other economic foreign policies (oil regulations) are used to keep countries in check
Diplomacy: the most quiet of the interactions between nations, this can be as simple as a couple ambassadors getting drinks at a local bar or meeting between big guns at summit talks
-International organizations- play a quintessential role in regulation between nations, especially in the realm of controlling the movement and production of weapons of mass destruction, maintaining the environment, international trade, and interactions between nations
-United Nations- best known international agency: created in 1945. Purpose is to keep peace between nations that are threatening war and to protect economic and social freedoms in different countries
-Security Council- apart of the UN: has the most power
: 5 of its 15 members are permanent (United States, China, France, Great Britain, and Russia) and 10 others are selected session to session by the general assembly
: makes decisions regarding the UN's stance of foreign military threats and interactions
- Regional Organizations- organization involving many countries; usually created for military purposes
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)- created in 1949 and has the following members; United States, Canada, Turkey, and the majority of Western European Countries (honestly, this was put in because Cole was too lazy to look up all the members in NATO)
-European Union (EU)- consists of most of the European nations; monitors trades, immigration, and labor policies between nations. Responsible for the adoption of the Euro in most European Countries(again, didn't list all the countries)
-Multinational Corporations- responsible for a large majority of the worlds output and trade internationally
-Nongovernment Organizations- groups that are not affiliated with the government that influence international interactions: Churches, labor unions, environmental and social organizations are examples of these
-Individuals- individuals bring their own customs and traditions wherever they go. An example would be tourists or immigrants (extra example, Geo and Striplin)
-The President- negotiates treaties, acts as Commander in Chief, and can deploy American troops in foreign countries
•The President- executive agreements: an agreement between two or more heads of government that has not been rarified (rarified? you mean ratified?) by that governments legislature
•Diplomats- interact as ambassadors between nations
Secretary of State- head of the State department, travels to foreign counties on behalf of America’s interests
•State Department- around 30,000 people work in the state department
-National Security Establishment- defense department: regulates military interactions and potential threats around the World
•Secretary of Defense- manages a massive budget, President’s main advisor (again, another misspelled word) on national defense matters
•National Security Council- consists of high ranking officials (President, Vice President, Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of State) this council (council? what are they jedis?) coordinates American foreign and military policies
•Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)- created to collect, analyze, and evaluate intelligence gathered from foreign nations and our own
•National Security Agency (NSA)- monitors threats around the world and in the United States
-Congress- shares the power with the President over foreign and defense policies
•Congress- has the ability to declare war, raise and organize an army, and appropriate funds for national security activities
War on Terrorism
By Mr. Republican... errr... Shane Pyle
The global war on terrorism was declared by President George W. Bush, after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which claimed 2,996 lives immediately, with many more dying afterwards (<--- it's apparently misspelled).
The war on terror is the first war in United States History that has not been waged against a clear and defined enemy, making it a very ambiguous war, and one that appears to many Americans to be without a clear goal.
Initially, Al Qaeda was the leading force behind the planning and execution of attacks against America and its allies, whereas now it has transitioned to provide support for smaller, less well known terrorist organizations, so that they might be more effective.
The balance of power shifting from Al Qaeda to a even distribution among much smaller organizations has made the original decapitation strategy, in which the military attempts to eliminate a small group of key leaders among the terrorist network, very ineffective at combating terrorism. The terrorist problem has in effect transformed itself from a local infection, and metastasized into a full-fledged disease.
Initially, the war on terror garnered much support from the American public, yet as the war dragged on and no clear goal was put forth, I mean come on “Iraqi Freedom”? (does Freedom come in other countries or just 2?) , really? You might as well say “screw you we just want your oil”. (Ya! screw your freedom) The American people, along with the rest of the world, soon lost faith in the actions of the American government.
Politics of Defense Policy
by Dane Olsen
-The way the American Government protects the nation's security
-3 main sub-groups (like subway, port-a-subs, and subaru?)
-1/5 of the Federal Budget goes to Defense (what about the offense?)
-is entangled with ideology
-Conservatives want more, Liberals want more social programs (damn liberals and their socializing)
-Reagan saw an increase in spending, which was reversed after his term, and than again in 9/11
-military power has helped to shape the U.S. into a super power with advances in technology
-America's defense is based on a large standing army (what about the ones that sit down? or the smaller standing army?)
-there are more than 1.3 million troops on active duty
-over 800,000 in the reserves
-300,000 deployed abroad
-cuts in spending reduce the number of active duty troops which led the military to rely more on national guard units as well as reserves
-three type of nuclear weapons: ICBM's, submarine ballistic missile, and strategic bombers
-costly to build, and potentially devastating to human survival
-Large scale efforts to cut back on nuclear arms - SALT, SALT II, START ( don't forget salt 3: revenge of salt and the pause button)
-no worries: America still has numerous fighter jets, aircraft carriers, and tanks to "take care of business" (yes but does it have enough to start a business?)
American Foreign Policy: an overview
By James Striplin and Shreya Khosla
A policy that involves choice-taking, like domestic policy, but additionally involves choices about relations with the rest of the world
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Created in 1945, an organization whose members include the United States, Canada (why is Canada there?), most Western European nations (just like cole, too lazy to include all), and Turkey (what about chicken? or steak), all of whom agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all
Created in 1945, an organization whose members agree to renounce war and to respect certain human and economic freedoms (is Iraqi freedom included?)
An alliance of the major Western European nations that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit
secretary of state
The head of the Department of State and traditionally a key adviser to the president on foreign policy
secretary of defense
The head of the Department of Defense and the president's key adviser on military policy
Joint Chiefs of Staff
The commanding officers of the armed services who advise the president on military policy
Central Intelligence Agency
An agency created after World War II to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad
A foreign policy course followed throughout most of our nation's history, whereby the United States has tried to stay out of other nations' conflicts, particularly European wars
A foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United States to isolate the Soviet Union, "contain" its advances, and resist its encroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if necessary
War by other than military means usually emphasizing ideological conflict
The fear, prevalent in the 1950s, that international Communism was conspiratorial, insidious, bent on world domination, and infiltrating American government and cultural institutions
A slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking in foreign policy strategy and policymaking
Mutual dependency, in which the actions of nations reverberate and affect one another's economic lifelines
A special tax added to imported goods to raise the price, thereby protecting American businesses and workers from foreign competition
A close relationship between businesses and the government where the private industry supplies the government with military technology in return for a profit
A connection between the government's desire to increase defense spending and the private industry's desire to increase profits
An agreement between Canada, the United States, and Mexico to create a trilateral trade bloc, eliminating barriers to free trade between the three countries
North American Free Trade Agreement
World Trade Organization:
An international organization instituted in 1995 intended to supervise and liberalize international trade, serving as an arbiter of international trade disputes
-Leaders of other Democratic nations often have greater freedom than the president.
-One’s opinion of a president being too weak or strong also depends on one’s support of his policies.
-BTW, states have very little say in foreign policies; most of that is up to the president and Congress.
-The Supreme Court has also often supported the president when he has made drastic measures during crises, such as when Lincoln acted questionably during the Civil War, when F.D.R. interned the Japanese during WWII, and when J.F.K. and L.B.J. sent troops to Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Ever since the fall of the Soviet Union, foreign policy may have become harder, since before, it was basically anti-Soviet Union, and today, there are threats that there may be more coups in Russia that can reclaim power and turn Russia Communist again; that fighting within and among the remnants of the Soviet empire (i.e. Bosnia and Serbia) could draw other countries in; that ancient antagonism in the Middle East could explode; that nuclear weapons can explode; and that China could rise to be a threat.
-How the U.S. reacts to such threats depends on the political elite, some of which say that the U.S. shouldn’t be the “world’s policeman,” others of which say the U.S. is the only power strong enough to prevent the rise of regional aggressors.
- U.N. missions (like the one in Kuwait) have become more diverse and unopposed by the Big Five, and U.N. Peacekeeping Missions have also become more numerous.
- Some people want the U.S. to work through the U.N. while others don’t want U.S. policy controlled by other nations.
- Liberals like the U.S. to use the U.N.; conservatives favor acting w/o U.N. authority or controls.
The New Global Agenda
by Shelby van Winkle
A. The Decreasing Role of Military Power
Military might is no longer the primary instrument of foreign policy. The United States is long on firepower at the very time firepower is decreasing in its applicability as an instrument of foreign policy. Economic sanctions are non-military penalties imposed on a foreign government in an attempt to modify its behavior. They are often a first resort in times of crisis and are less risky than sending troops. Successful sanctions most often have broad international support, which is rare. Critics argue that sanctions are counterproductive because they can provoke a nationalist backlash.
B. Nuclear Proliferation
The spread of technology has enabled the creation of nuclear weapons and the missiles to deliver them. American policymakers have attempted to halt the spread of nuclear weapons through international treaties. North Korea, Iran, Iraq, and Libya may particularly be a threat to their neighbors and the United States.
Perhaps the most troublesome issue in national security is the spread of terrorism—the use of violence to demoralize and frighten a country’s population or government. Terrorists have the advantage of stealth and surprise. Improved security and intelligence can help.
D. The International Economy
Today’s international economy is characterized by interdependency when actions reverberate and affect other people’s economic lifelines. The International Monetary Fund is a cooperative international organization of 182 countries intended to stabilize the exchange of currencies and the world economy. Since the end of World War II, trade among nations has grown rapidly. The globalization of finances has been even more dramatic than the growth of trade. In a simpler time, the main instrument of international economic policy was the tariff, a tax added to the cost of imported goods, intended to raise the price of imported goods and thereby protect American businesses and workers from foreign competition. Nontariff barriers such as quotas, subsidies, or quality specifications for imported products are common means of limiting imports. In 1992 President Bush signed the North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico to eventually eliminate most tariffs among North American countries. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is the mechanism by which most of the world’s nations negotiate widespread trade agreements. A persistent issue for the president is opening up foreign markets for goods and services. The United States lacks the influence to demand these markets be opened. If we refuse to trade with another nation, it will deny our exports access to its markets, and U.S. consumers will lose access to its products.
The balance of trade is the ratio of what a country pays for imports to what it earns from exports. When a country imports more than it exports, it has a balance of trade deficit, as has been the case in recent years. The excess of imports over exports decreases the dollar’s buying power. Exports account for more than 10 percent of the GDP and 5 percent of all civilian employment. A poor balance of trade exacerbates unemployment as jobs flow abroad. Sometimes American firms have shut down their domestic operations and relocated in countries with cheaper labor. Cheaper dollars also makes the cost of American labor more competitive so more foreign-owned companies are building factories in the United States. The stability of the U.S. economy as well as the low value of the dollar has made the United States attractive to foreign investors.
... continued (sorry it is sooo long it's shelby's fault)
E. International Inequality and Foreign Aid
World politics today includes a growing conflict between rich and poor nations. The income gap between the rich nations and poor nations is widening rather than narrowing. Less developed countries have responded to their poverty by borrowing money, which has increased their foreign debt. There is also a large gap between the rich and poor within less developed countries. Presidents of each party have pressed for aid to nations in the developing world. Aside from simple humanitarian concern for those who are suffering, America has wanted to stabilize nations that were friendly or that possessed supplies of vital raw materials. Aid has been given in the form of grants as well as credits and loan guarantees to purchase American goods, loans at favorable interest rates, and forgiveness of previous loans. A substantial percentage of foreign aid is in the form of military assistance and is targeted to a few countries the United States considers to be of vital strategic significance. Foreign aid has never been very popular with Americans. Congress typically cuts the president’s foreign aid requests. Many people believe that the provision of economic aid by other nations serves only to further enrich the few without helping the many within a poor nation. Since the thaw in the cold war, the nations of Central and Eastern Europe, including Russia, have sought aid from the West.
F. The Global Connection, Energy, and the Environment
Energy and the environment symbolize the increased dependency nations have on each other. Groups like the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries can and have held the United States hostage because of their dependence of foreign oil. The United States imports half of the oil it uses. Almost every nation faces severe environmental dilemmas that know no political ideology or political boundary. Global issues of environment and energy have crept slowly onto the nation’s policy agenda. However, issues closer to home are often considered more important and the United States has failed to sign international treaties on the environment because of the cost and threat of losing jobs
Understanding National Security
by Gio B-H
A. Foreign and Defense Policymaking and Democracy
Some believe that democracy has little to do with the international relations of the United States, which i guess could be true considering that everything happens while we aren't aware. Americans are usually more interested in domestic policy than in foreign policy, I don't blame them. Public officials seem to have more discretion in making foreign policy, which I do not blame, I would to if I was taking over a foreign government.
There is little evidence, however, that policies at odds with the wishes of the American people can be sustained; civilian control of the military is unquestionable. The system of separation of powers plays a crucial role in foreign as well as domestic policy. American international economic policy is pluralistic. Agencies and members of Congress each pursue their own policy goals, a competition for their own groups policy rather than a policy for the whole.
B. Foreign and Defense Policymaking and the Scope of Government
America’s global connections as a superpower have many implications for how active the national government is in the realm of foreign policy and national defense. The United States will remain a superpower and continue to have interests to defend around the world. As long as this is the case, the scope of American government in foreign and defense policy will be substantial. Unless, you know, North Korea suddenly gets super powers and invades the U.S. in one sweep, than, well, Damn.
well, actually, there is no conclusion, you have handouts, so just read or something.. this is here just in case we needed to waste time before the bell rang... so enjoy this picture.