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PART 3 - Hybrids - CLOWNFISH - Wilkerson's Lost Chapters

by Matt Pedersen
by

Matt Pedersen

on 22 August 2016

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Transcript of PART 3 - Hybrids - CLOWNFISH - Wilkerson's Lost Chapters

Joyce Wilkerson's Lost Edition
SPECIES
GENETICS
HYBRIDS
THE PATH FORWARD
"The Base Unit of Conservation" - Dr. Luiz Rocha

If you're going to walk a tightrope, you better do it right.
...are the key to being a better Designer Clownfish breeder.
CLOWNFISHES
Interspecies Hybrids
A Crossroads
Why Hybrids Suck, #1
Why Hybrids Suck, #2
We are at a point where most genetic mutations exist in pure species which do not show a great deal of geographic variation - Ocellaris is pretty uniform in its appearance across its entire distribution.*
*except for the Darwin "Black" Ocellaris.
If we understand the conservation importance of geographic races / variants (that they free us from the vagaries of arbitrary taxonomic species divisions) , we can work with the genetics that arise within that race/species, which allows for designer genetic play and conservation breeding to safely coexist. PNG Lightning Maroon and Morse Code Maroons are a perfect example.
On the right (B & D), are typical examples of two Victorian Cichlid species that occur sympatrically.
On the left (A & D), examples of these species showing hybrid "degredation";
the result of evironmental interferance causing mate selection causing hybridization in the wild.
C) is a very poor representation of species D), having been muddled with genes from species A), B)
source - Colour variation in cichlid fish: Developmental mechanisms, selective pressures and evolutionary consequences
https://www.scienceopen.com/document/id/76a551ff-f8ac-46b4-b850-d5acde2a0b4d
Can you tell me which specimen is "pure" and which is the hybrid?
Why Hybrids Suck, #3
Can you tell me which fish are "pure species" and which are hybrids?
Black Photon (A. percula "Onyx" X A. ocellaris "Darwin")
A. percula "Onyx"
images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Why Names Matter*
Can you tell me what each fish is called, just by looking?
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. percula
"Onyx")
SNOW ONYX - Hybrid
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin")
BLACK ICE - potential Hybrid
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake", with Fancy Strain as well)
FANCY SNOW
(
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake")
SNOWFLAKE
all images by Sustainable Aquatics
all images by Sustainable Aquatics
*With Hybrids, the name applied generally becomes synonymous with the lineage behind the cross.

While it's one thing to have multiple names for the same genetic phenotype in mutations (because we can disambiguate through genetic code shorthands), by the time we reach hybrids, the name is the only thing we have.

Thus, the imperitive to have an official registry of hybrid names with FULL lineage, for traceability, transparency, and respecting the accomplishements of others.
Why Create Hybrids?
With genetics, you have to wait for a mutation to pop-up and be capitalized on. It can easily take 2 generations of breeding just to figure out if a aberrant fish offers a heretible gene, and it
might not
. The process of developing a new genetic mutation could easily take 2-10 years, and thousands of dollars.
When hybridizing, particularly primary hybrids (initial crosses between two species) the results are immediate, consistent, and readily reproducible.
"NATURAL" Hybrids (8)
Once again, upon further review, my "if it's not wild don't touch it" mindset fails to hold up; hybrids do occur in the wild, they ARE part of the natural biodiversity. Additional wild hybrids have been seen, but are omitted here as the parentage is indeterminate at this time.
Man-Made Intraspecific Hybrids (16)
Man-Made Interspecific Primary Hybrids (13)
Interspecies Clownfish hybrids are EASY to accomplish in the grand scheme of things. The pallet only expands when you also include all the genetic mutations and geographic races available.
Genetic Mutations:
Hard Work and Risky
ORA's wild "Jigsaw" White Stripe Maroon was spawned for 2 generations, but never produced any aberrant offspring.
HYBRIDS = CONSISTENT RESULTS
Black Ice Clownfish (A.
ocellaris
"Snowflake" X A.
ocellaris
"Darwin"). Images are: TL, Sustainable Aquatics; TR, Proaquatix; BL Fisheye Aquaculture; BR, ORA
IT'S "EASY"*
VANITY
Because of the "ease", anyone can do it, and anyone can make a name for themselves through it. Thus, why I call still call hybridization "
Lazy Innovation
". Granted, all designer breeding is a bit "lazy" compared to, say, breeding Tangs for the first time.

Hybridization appeals to new breeders who lack the conservation ethic through simple ignorance of the need for it. The new breeder mindset is often "how can I make something new that no one has seen?"

These new breeders seldom if ever stop to ask, "Just because I can do it,
SHOULD
I do it"?
I am not picking on Sanjay Joshi when I include his Photon lineage chart here on a slide about "easy" and anyone can do it! I include his chart to demonstrate how easily, how quickly, and how far, Sanjay was able to extend his hybrid flock.

Sanjay employed excellent record keeping, transparency, and understands the importance of name integrity in hybrids.

Sanjay went about hybridizing in the way that I would want ALL aquarists to approach it.
*I AM NOT PICKING ON SANJAY!
Tomato X Ocellaris Hybrid - WILD, Philippines
Amphiprion frenatus
X
Amphiprion ocellaris
WILD from the Philippines - Clarkii X Tomato Hybrid
images by RVS Fish World Inc.
Tomato X Maroon Hybrid - WILD INTERGENERIC HYBRID! Philippines
Amphiprion frenatus
X
Premnas biaculeatus
images - RVS Fish World Inc.
Amphiprion clarkii
X
Amphiprion frenatus
main image courtesy Reef Builders, top images RVS Fish World Inc.
A. leucokranos
- Wild PNG
Most Recent Research = HYBRID
(A. chrysopterus X A. sandaracinos) = aka.
A.
x
leucokranos!
A. theillei
- Wild Philippines,
Suspected to be a wild hybrid by some
(
A. chrysopterus
X
A. sandaracinos
)?
(
A. ocellaris
X
A. sandarcinos
?)?
main image by Walter D. Laroque V
BR/BL/TR - RVS Fish World Inc.
TR, David Burdik
image - SEASMART
X
X
X
X
X
X
One small problem with the idea that
A. theillei
is a hybrid with the same parentage as
A. leucokranos

(
A. chrysopterus
X
A. sandaracinos
)...

If
A. theillei
was found in the Philippines, then it probably isn't the hybrid of
A. chrysopterus
X
A. sandaracinos
....
...Because
A. chrysopterus
doesn't seem to occur in the Philippines!
Man-Made Intergeneric Hybrids (5)
These are "hybrids" that under current taxonomy, belong to the same species. However, in my opinion, they are likely full-on interspecific hybids. These hybrids are problematic in that species which are taxonomically "lumped" today, could tomorrow be redefined as distinct species. These hybrids often blur the lines between biogeographic populations as well, eliminating the subtle differences between these natural forms. A great example is the hybrid of
Premnas biaculeatus
("Gold Stripe" X "White Stripe"), which I might prefer to call
P.
(
epigrammata
X
biaculeatus
) given my taxonomic point of view. This known to have been created, but no documentation can be found, so it is omitted at this time. Brian Williams proposed this hybrid to be called "White Gold", a fitting name perhaps.
"MOCHA"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
While other names have been applied to this hybrid over the years, they've all fallen away. Almost universally, this cross is called a MOCHA (the name "Noel's Dark Horse" has also been applied)

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
"BLACKER ICE"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Darwin" X
A. ocellaris
"Black Ice"

Additional Info
:
The Blacker Ice is the initial back-cross of a Black Ice to the Darwin Ocellaris parent, a necessary step in the pursuit of creating "Black Snowflakes".

Interestingly, given the genetics of Snowflake, it is possible that non-snowflake offspring were produced, which would be equivalent to a "MOCHA" back-cross to the Darwin parent. Such a hybrid has no name, and what becomes of such fish? Are they passed off as somethign else? This is a weird example of genetic mutations on top of hybridizing creating more "things" requiring "names".

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 25% Ocellaris,
75% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
all images Proaquatix
"S'MORE / BLAKE ICE"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Jonathan Foster actually created and first published this hybrid as the "S'more", beating out other commercial producers by only a matter of weeks. However, the name "Black Ice" has stuck and is the pervasive name for this hybrid. Have also recently seen the name "MOCHA Snowflake" used, which while technically descriptively correct, isn't a standard accepted name.

This cross is essentially a MOCHA, just with the added Snowflake Gene. In truth, any normally patterned fish from the parentage listed would be MOCHAS.

Created by
: Fisheye Aquaculture
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
All photos ORA
"BLACK SNOWFLAKE / Phantom"
Amphiprion ocellaris
X
X
X
Parentage
: VARIES.
Includes:
A. ocellaris
"Black Ice", "Blacker Ice", "Darwin"

Most likely back-cross to quickly get there
:
A. ocellaris
"Blacker Ice" X "Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Some breeders call this a "Phantom" vs. "Black Snowflake". Breeder stories vary, and it seems multiple breeders pursued the same end goal, a Black Ocellaris with the Snowflake Gene. How many generations, and what particular parent sets, aren't publicly disclosed.

What is known is that additional generations of back-crossing were required to "breed out" the "Orange" ocellaris phenotype. These fish represent a great example of true guppification of clownfish - lineage is lost, and the fish becomes more of a "strain" than a traceable hybrid. Invariably, along the way various amounts of throwbacks would have made this more of a selective breeding and grading project.

Created by
: Multiple Sources
Likely Breakdown
: >25% Ocellaris,
< 75% Darwin Ocellaris
X
Primary hybrids a crosses between two distinct species within the same genus; this is the first generation of hybridization. Primary hybrids between two closely related species tend to be problematic, as the results blur the lines that distinguish these species from each other. Primary hybridization has become more complex with the inclusion of designer genes which add multiple phenotypes to the resultant offspring. Additional hybrids are known but lack supportive documentation to illustrate here. These include
Amphiprion (melanopus
X
frenatus
), and
A.
(
sebae
X
leucokranos
) by Proaquatix.
"BLACK PHOTON"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Darwin" X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
A unique hybrid; black coloration is intermediate, but the most interesting observation is the Darwin Ocellaris influence on stripe development timing - signficantly faster than a pure Percula.

Joshi also succeeded in creating "Gen 2" (F2) Black Photons from the F1 offspring, proving the fertility of the cross

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
: 50% Onyx Percula,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
A. (ocellaris
"Darwin" X
percula
"Onyx")
Top images - Sea & Reef Aquaculture - bottom image Sanjay Joshi
X
"SMOCULARIS / Twilight"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Darwin" X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
SMOCULARIS is basically the same as the Black Photon, with the exception of adding the "Picasso" genetic from the Percula side of the equation. In the Phil Schlanger's case, a high grade Picasso strain was used.

Schlanger was kind enough to repeat a story that a few others mentioned, that Rich from Just Clowning Around had already created this and named it "Twilight". A cursory web search did not turn up any results for Twilight Clownfish including on the JCA website. Meanwhile Smocularis has stuck, at least in the public eye.

Created by
: Possibly Just Clowning Around
Breakdown
: 50% Picasso Percula,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Top Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture, Bottom Image (Smocularis), Naquan (Straightjiggy) Kirkland
X
"WHITE TIPPED"
Parentage:
A. sebae
X
A. polymnus

Additional Info
:
I am unsure whether this was a C-Quest or Proaquatix creation. Joe Lichtenbert produced F2 White Tipped Clownfish from F1, proving that the hybrid was fertile.

Which form of
A. polymnus
used isn't known, but judging by what was currently available at the time, most likely it was the Brown form of the species.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Sebae,
50% Saddleback
A. (polymnus X sebae)
Images: Main Image, White Tipped - Proaquatix. Parental Images, Sustainable Aquatics, Inset Image - Matt Pedersen
X
"PERCULARIS"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
X
A. percula

Additional Info
:
It's such an old hybrid that I actually cannot find any photographs of it to share! These days, all "Percularis" seem to incorporate some sort of designer genetics.

This is a great example of a "bad" hybrid - Percularis are intermediate between the parents, which themselves are already so similar that it was decades before the trade got their identification correct! The offspring can't really look any "better" than the parents, so no good can come from them.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Percula
A. (ocellaris X percula)
Images: Sustainable Aquatics
X
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
A pretty straightforward hybrid.

Of course, any fish from this parentage which lacks the Snowflake genetic is still the cross of A. ocellaris X A. percula "Onyx"...but what do we call THIS hybrid genotype? It needs a name.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
:
50% Snowflake Ocellaris,
50% Onyx Percula
Images: Sustainable Aquatics
X
"Clarkii X Black Ocellaris"
Parentage:
A. clarkii
X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Almost the same as the last one, this yet another one ORA's surprise hybrids. Note the difference the Darwin Ocellaris parentage makes.

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Clarkii,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
A. (clarkii X ocellaris
"Darwin"
)
Images: ORA
X
"Clarkii X Tricinctus"
Parentage:
A. clarkii
X
A. tricinctus

Additional Info
:
Another accidental hybrid at ORA, this is one of those "dangerous" ones because on the surface, this fish is strikingly similar to
A. tricinctus
. Get it into the wrong hands with the wrong ID, and someone's Tricinctus breeding project goes off the rails. Look at the example parental versions to see my point...

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Clarkii,
50% Tricinctus
A. (clarkii X tricinctus)
Images: Top left Clarkii, Sustainable Aquatics; Top Right wild Tricinctus, Pacific Island Aquatics;
Main hybrid image, ORA
X
"Tomato X Ocellaris"
Parentage
:
A. frenatus
X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
ORA has documented numerous accidental hybrids. This one is unique in that it's also been seen in the wild, as shown earlier. Could be given a formal name by ORA.

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Tomato,
50% Ocellaris
A. (frenatus X ocellaris)
Images: ORA
X
"Clarkii X Ocellaris"
Parentage:
A. clarkii
X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
Another one of ORA's documented "surprise" hybrids, which occured accidentally. ORA would be within their rights to give it an official name.

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Clarkii
A. (clarkii X ocellaris)
Images: ORA
X
A. (ocellaris
"Darwin" X
percula
"Picasso")
Second Generation White Tipped Clownfish bred by Joe Lichtenbert / Reef Propagations Inc.
"MIDNIGHT BLACK PHOTON"
X
A. (ocellaris
"Midnight" X
percula
"Onyx")
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Snowflake"X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
Years ago, someone created this hybrid and called it "Snowcasso". Then Doni Marie (Woodstock, Doni's Reef) trademarked Snowcasso(TM) as a name for her highest grade Picasso Percula offspring (Doni's broodstock were ORA Picasso Percula). With this hybrid being recently revisted by Bali Aquarich, a new name had to be found given the legal issues created by the trademark, so we now know this fish as Picassnow.

Interesting things might happen depending on the parents used. Het Snowflake, and Het Picasso parents, would actually yield a spread of offspring. Some offspring could lack one, or both of the designer genes, and their appearance could be different than offspring which inherit both the Snowflake and the Picasso genetics. It's presumed that the fish we call Picassnow are showing both. A fish which only gets the Snowflake Gene might be thought of as a Snow Onyx or simply a Snowflake Percularis (owing to a lack of Onyx?)...a fish with only the Picasso gene would represent a Percularis hybrid that hasn't been named - I would propose simply Picasso Percularis .

The big question / concern is that we're not seeing these other forms marketed? What happens to all these "other fish" that don't hit the "Picassnow" phenotype and genotype? Is anyone out there selling the Percularis forms (that didn't inherit any mutation gene) or are they being passed off as pure fish (etiher Percula or Ocellaris)

It should be noted that what is genetically probably the same thing, using a "Platinum" Percula X Snowflake Ocellaris, has been sold into the market by Bob Bittner of Reef Stew simply as "Platinum Snowflakes'. Interestingly, a 50/50 phenotype split is shown, where there are only wild-type (Percularis) and then outwardly "double gene" fish.

Created by
: UNKNOWN
Breakdown
: 50% Snowflake Ocellaris,
50% Picasso Ocellaris
Images: Bali Aquarich
X
"SNOW ONYX"
A. (ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
percula
"Onyx")
"PICASSNOW"
A. (ocellaris
"Snowflake" X
percula
"Picasso")
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Midnight" X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
Sanjay Joshi kicked it up a notch, adding the stripe eliminating "Naked" gene from Black Ocellaris into what is otherwise a Black Photon. Only 50% of the pairing will inherit the naked gene from the Midnight; nakeds, dominos, extreme misbars all likely carry the gene. Normally barred siblings, and those which are mostly completely barred / slightly misbarred, should not carry the naked gene, and are to be considered simply Black Photons.

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Midnight Darwin Ocellaris
In the Clownfish world, we only have two genera,
Premnas
and
Amphiprion
. So in order to get a hybrid that crosses genus lines, it's going to have to incorporate some sort of Maroon Clownfish.
In the Orchid world, Intregeneric hybrids are given a "made up genus" which combines the genera of the parental species.
Premprion
?
Premphiprion
?
Premnion
?
Premnasion
?
Premnamphion
?
"CITRON"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe" X
A. percula

Additional Info
:
The latest intergeneric hybrid, brought to my attention by MJ Jones, is the hybrid of a White Stripe Maroon Clownfish with a standard orange Percula clownfish. The hybrid, dubbed CF217X by Bali Aquarich, was only produced one time, with only a handful of freebies sent to the US in fall 2014. It awaited a formalized name, and was dubbed the Citron clownfish by Kris Cline and Matt Pedersen with the blessing of Wen-Ping Su, in January 2015.

Created by
: Bali Aquarich
Breakdown
: 50% WS Maroon,
50% Percula
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe"
X A. percula
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics, bottom image, Kris Cline, CarolinaAquatics.com
X
"BLOOD ORANGE"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe" X
A. ocellaris

Additional Info
:
Another primary hybrid, this one created by ORA.




Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% GSM,
50% Ocellaris
Top Images: Sustainable Aquatics; main image - ORA
X
"MAI TAI"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe"

X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
The third "Ocellaris type X Maroon" hybrid. Actually was first done by a reefer in Thailand, named by another breeder later on, now commercialized by Sustainable Aquatics.

Created by
: "Vekin"
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% White Stripe Maroon
All Images Sustainable Aquatics - more on Vekin at http://www.reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2145533
X
"YOUR NAME HERE"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
It's so obvious at this point, this is the last of the 4 primary hybrids between the "ocellaris twin species" and the "maroon twin species". Someone gets to do it and name it! YOU?

Created by
: IMAGINATION
Images: Sustainable Aquatics
X
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
"Darwin"
?
Understand the importance of provenance in your species breeding. Replace unknown fish with pairs that have good history / records.
Try to keep genetic mutations within species of known provenance. This allows designer breeding and conservation minded breeding to occur within the same project.
Understand the importance of names, of lineage and transparency, particularly in hybrids. Avoid making hybrids between similar species due to their inherent risk.
My request - we are OVERDUE for a hybrid and genetic registry, and a formalized set of community standards and ethics. MBI is in a position to change that.
New Breeders are often drawn to genetic mutations and hybridization. Alienating breeders who are interested in these aspects of marine ornamentals creates two camps vs. one unified front. Designer breeding is not going away, so better to be inclusive to these often fledgeling breeders if we want to grow a stronger breeding community.
A PRESENTATION OF THIS MAGNITUDE...
...could not be possible without copyright fair use laws. Thankfully I only have to lean on that once (sorry Kylie Waldon...can't find your email!)

...could not have been possible without the public generousity of individuals who make their work freely available through Creative Commons licenses. It means I don't even have to hunt you down to ask. THANK YOU ALL.

....could not have been possible without countless aquarists. Everyone I was able to contact was extremely gracious and generous in helping this project come together - this is truly a COMMUNAL EFFORT*!
COMMUNAL EFFORT = special thanks to Mitch May, Brandon Melhoff, Chris Turnier, Brian Williams, Darren Nancarrow, David Burdick, Dennis Polack, Dan Navin / EcoAquariums PNG, Dale Prichard, Jonathan Foster / Fisheye Aquaculture, J.E. Randall, Josh Jensen, Kylie Waldon, Laurent Plantard, Marcel Triessl, Mike Durkalec, Mike Hoang, Dustin Dorton / ORA, Kevin Rezendes / Pacific Island Aquatics, Thane Militz, Eric Wagner / Proaquatix, Jake Adams / Reef Builders, Daniel Knop, Richard Field, Rick Winterbottom, Barnett Shutman / RVS Fish World Inc, Dr. Ryan, Dr. Sanjay Joshi, Scott Johnson, Soren Hansen / Sea & Reef Aquaculture, David Vossler / SEASMART, Phil Schlanger, Naquan Kirkland, Steve Robinson, Matthew Carberry / Sustainable Aquatics, Tom Lamb, Robert King, Scott Fellman / Unique Corals, Walter D. LaRoque V, Walt Smith / Walt Smith International, Dr. Matthew L. Wittenrich, Tal Sweet, Linda Close / Midnight Mariculture, Kevin Kohen / LiveAquaria.com, and frankly I'm 100% sure I've forgotten over overlooked someone in there...so my heartfelt apologies (let me know and I'll add you!)
When we talk "hybrids" in fish breeding, we're really not talking about just any outcross of unrelated fish, but specifically, matings that cross species lines.

Remember, species lines may well be arbitrary / poorly understood.
An array of genetic mutations all seen in A. ocellaris - images by Sustainable Aquatics
"CHOCOLATE MOCHA"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Darwin" X
A. ocellaris
"Black Ice"
-or-
A. ocellaris "Darwin" X
A. ocellaris "Mocha"

Additional Info
:
Remember the last slide where I said that there would be non-snowflake offspring and they needed a name? Turns out, upon further investigation, one of the random names I was unfamiliar with, happened to be the "missing name". Basically, this fish represents the back cross of a MOCHA hybrid to the "Darwin" ocellaris parent. The fact that a parent had a snowflake gene is completely irrelevant, as the rest of the hybrid genetics would be the same either way. This variety has also been sold as "MUDDY BLACK" and as simply MOCHA, the latter being unfortunate as it is not genetically the same as a MOCHA (50/50 vs. 25/75).

Named by
: Sustainable Aquatics
Breakdown
: 25% Ocellaris,
75% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
all images Sustainable Aquatics
X
-or-
by Matt Pedersen
"WIDE BAR MOCHA GLADIATOR"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Wide Bar Gladiator" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
The only real difference here is the addition of the "Wide Bar" genetic coming from the Orange Ocellaris parent. It's presumed that any offspring of this cross not exhibiting the "Wide Bar" trait are simply standard "MOCHA" hybrids.


Created by
: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
X
"MIDNIGHT LIGHTNING"
Amphiprion ocellaris
images - Midnight and Black Snowflake, ORA. | Midnight Lightning courtesy Rudy Vasquez
Parentage
: Midnight (Naked Black) Darwin Ocellaris X BLACK SNOWFLAKE Ocellaris

Additional Info
:
This phenotype has carried numerous names during the course of its development, from Midnight Snow to Black Lightning and Lightning Snow etc. It must be pointed out that this phenotype has NO relationship whatsover to the Lightning gene found
Premnas biaculeatus.

The parentage shown here actually creates 4 phenotypes; 25% get no mutant genes, and are outwardly "Black Ocellaris" but are not pure Darwins (given the inclusion of orange ocellaris in the past generations required to create the modern parents). 25% outwardly will appear as "Black Snowflake", 25% will be "Midnights", and 25% will get both the Naked gene and the Snowflake gene. It is the interplay of these two genes that creates the Midnight Lightning phenotype; the snowflake gene pushing for overbarring and heavily embellished stripe borders, while the naked gene attempts to reduce and eliminates stripes, thus constricting the area that barring occurs and resulting in what we see here. Initially, it was suspected that this phenotype was simply a "snowflake misbar", and some vendors even market this fish as a "misbarred Black Snowflake".

Created by
: Rudolfo Vasquez, ClownfishUSA
Likely Breakdown
: >25% Ocellaris, < 75% Darwin Ocellaris
X
"MochaVinci"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"DaVinci" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
One of the newest recombinations of a basic primary hybrid and a genetic mutation is the MochaVinci. It's a "Mocha", but due to the parentage, 50% off the Mocha offspring inherit the DaVinci / Wyoming White gene, and thus, show the aberrant barring typical for that gene.

Created by
: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
X
"BLACK DAVINCI"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Wide Bar Gladiator" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Interestingly, Sea & Reef Aquaculture claims that this original Black DaVinci was a one-off offspring that appeared out of the MochaVinci breeding. This throws a very interesting twist on some genetic assumptions. It is likely that future generations of "Black DaVinci" will be made up of vastly more Darwin Ocellaris than this unique specimen.

Created by
: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Breakdown
: 50% Ocellaris,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture
X
WILD from the Marshall Islands:
Tricinctus X Blue Stripe Hybrid
Parental images courtesy Kevin Rezendes / Pacific Island Aquatics. Hybrid Chrysopterus X Tricinctus by Scott Johnson - http://www.underwaterkwaj.com/uw-misc/clowns/Amphiprion-chrysopterus.htm
Amphiprion tricinctus
X
Amphiprion chrysopterus "Marshall Islands"
X
Wild Suspected Hybrid - Norfolk Island
Latezonatus X Mcculochi
images: A. latezonatus, Pacific Island Aquatics. A. mcculochi, ORA. Suspected Hybrid, Travelpod.com blogger Vance Simpson (permissions requested, but "fair use" for the moment!)
X
Amphiprion latezonatus
X
Amphiprion mcculochi
"Black Saddle X Gold Stripe Maroon"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe" X
A. polymnus
"Black"

Additional Info
:
In late 2014, a handful of specimens were found out of hundreds of Black Saddleback offspring; based on what was spawning in the same system at the same time, and the outward appearance of the fish, it is suspected these were fertilized by a male Gold Flake Maroon which shares the system.

Created by
: ORA
Breakdown
: 50% GS Maroon,
50% Black Saddleback
P. biaculeatus
"Gold Stripe"
X A. polymnus
"Black"
Top Left Image - Sustainable Aquatics; Top Right and Bottom - ORA
http://www.orafarm.com/blog/2011/06/17/mystery-clownfish/
X
"COCOA"
Parentage:
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
The first of the "Maroon" X Ocellaris type hybrids. This was created likely in the early 2000s, if not even earlier.


Created by
: Proaquatix
Breakdown
: 50% WS Maroon,
50% Darwin Ocellaris
P. biaculeatus
"White Stripe"
X A. ocellaris
"Darwin"
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics; bottom image Chris Turnier
X
WILD from Fiji - the RED BEE Clownfish
Red Bee image by it's discoverer, Cameron Bee
Amphiprion chrysopterus "Fiji" (YT/YF)
X
Amphiprion barberi
X
This suspected hybrid clownfish was discovered in Fiji in late 2014 by Walt Smith International livestock manager Cameron Bee. The fish shown is a juvenile; it is unclear what the adult fish will look like. The name "Red Bee" was proposed in during initial discussions by myself (Matt Pedersen), in recognition of the coloration, the 3 stripes on a juvenile, and yes, it's discover. I'm pretty sure I was kinda joking, but the name stuck.

Bee discovered at least two more specimens in January 2015, not more than 30 meters from the location of the first. A second fish was collected, and ironically may well be responsible for saving Bee's life when he was swept away, spending 6 hours swimming to the nearest island.

It is important to note that with species which have very well known geographic races (eg.
A. chrysopterus
), using different races may have different results. As such, we might need to treat the hybrid of (
A. barberi
X
A. chrysopterus
"Fiji"), as a separate fish from, for example, a hybrid utilizing the white tailed, black footed form, like (
A. chrysopterus
"PNG" X
A. barberi
)

"SUNSET MOCHA"
Parentage:
A.
Black Ice X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
The parentage listed is the initial parentage used to create this type, but's certainly not the only path. In short, this is a MOCHA back-cross to the Ocellaris parent. Any wild-type, 3- barred hybrid that's 3/4 Ocellaris and 1/4 Darwin Black, is probably best thought of as a Sunset Mocha. It is important to note how much the fish simply looks like a pure
A. ocellaris
, a problem for conservation breeding. Only by name could you tell this fish was a hybrid.

Created by
: Shelly Dupchak Brynston, 2014

Breakdown: 75% Ocellaris,
25% Darwin Ocellaris

Amphiprion ocellaris
Top left: ORA, Top Right: Sea & Reef, Main Image - Shelly Dupchack Brynston
X
"SUNSET MOCHA SNOWFLAKE"
Parentage:
A.
Black Ice X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
These are the siblings from this parentage which carry the snowflake gene. It is worth noting that I anticipate the addition of both Sunset Mocha DaVinci, and Sunset Mocha Frostbites, by Steve Sifuentes, by using a DaVinci parent instead of the wild-type ocellaris. It is noteworthy that in the intitial hybrid back cross, Shelly saw a wide range of snowflake gene expression in her offspring, from very faint to almost solidly white fish.

Created by
: Shelly Dupchak Brynston, 2014

Breakdown:
75% Ocellaris,
25% Darwin Ocellaris,
with a Snowflake Gene

Amphiprion ocellaris
Top left: ORA, Top Right: Sea & Reef, Main Image and sibling phenotpye spread, - Shelly Dupchack Brynston
X
Man-Made Interspecific Complex Hybrids (8)
Multi-generational crosses between two or more distinct species within the same genus; in the orchid world these are described as secondary and/or complex hybrids. This includes back-crosses to parental species from a primary hybrid cross. These back-crosses are particularly troubling. Some hybridization insights suggest that even if the primary hybrid is very distinct, back crossing offspring to a parental species can eliminate much of the apparenty hybrid nature in as little as 1-2 generations. Thus, clownfish quickly approach the outward state of guppies and other freshwater livebearers.
A. (
Black Snowflake" X
percula
"Onyx")
"SNOWFLAKE BLACK PHOTON"
X
Parentage:
A.
Black Snowflake X
A. percula
"Onxy"

Additional Info:
If you consider A. ocellaris, A. percula, and A. ocellaris "Darwin" to in fact represent 3 distinct species, then the Black Snowflake parent is itself a hybrid. Sanjay's latest hybrid might well be the first man-made hybrid clownfish to consist of 3 species! In the orchid world, such a hybrid is generally called a "COMPLEX" hybrid.

Sanjay's offspring show fish without the snowflake gene - given the unknown weight of Ocellaris and Black Ocellaris in a Black Snowflake, it may be difficult to formally apply a name to that Phenotype, but it is still something we have not seen before. Note how similar this fish appears to a "Black Ice".

Created by
:
Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
: < 37.5 %
A. ocellaris
"Darwin", > 12.5%
A. ocellaris, 50%
A. percula
"Onyx",
and a single Snowflake Gene (Sf/+)
Parentage:
A.
Black Photon X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
A backcross of the Black Photon to it's Darwin Ocellaris parent.

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
:
25% Onyx Percula,
75% Darwin Ocellaris
A.
(Black Photon X
ocellaris
"Darwin")
Top Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture; main image LiveAquaria.com
X
Parentage:
A.
Black Photon

X
A. percula
"Onyx"

Additional Info
:
This is the "other" backcross of a Black Photon, this time to the Onyx Percula parent.

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
:
75% Onyx Percula,
25% Darwin Ocellaris
Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture; main image LiveAquaria.com
X
"DOUBLE BLACK PHOTON"
A.
(Black Photon X
percula
"Onyx")
"HALF BLACK PHOTON"
NOTE - only 50% of the offspring of this hybrid have the snowflake gene. The others are lack it, thus representing a different genotype and thus deserving of their own, non-snowflake moniker.
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics - Main Image Brian Williams / Clownfish Depot
X
"WHITE KNIGHT"
A. (
Snow Onyx

" X
percula
"Picasso")
Parentage:
A.
Snow Onyx X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
Another twist on the 2nd generation hybrids, this is a back cross on some levels (many Picasso lines carry Onyx genetics already). Depending on parental genotype, not all will carry both Snowflake and Picasso gene, leaving us to need other names for these other unique hybrid phenotypes. I have proposed "Knight" for the fish which are 75% Percula and 25% Ocellaris with no mutant genes, and Snowflake Knight (update, Brian Williams has used the name "Black Knight" for fish of this hybrid carrying the Snowflake Gene), and Picasso Knight respectively for the offspring which only inherit one or the other gene.

Created by
: Brian Williams
Breakdown
: 25% Snowflake Ocellaris, 25% Onyx Percula 50% Picasso Percula
Parentage:
A.
Photon X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
Brian Williams recreated the Half Black Photon in late 2014, but utilized a Picasso Percula instead of a regular Percula. Additionally, he used a fish purchased as Midnight Black Photon, but the offspring spreads, 50% Normally Barred, 50% Picasso-type barring, revealed no presence of the naked gene, making his Photon simply a misbarred Photon out of the Midnight Photon breeding's offspring. Thus, the parentage results in 50% "Half Black Photons" and then 50% which ALSO have the Picasso gene, and are thus "Picasso Black Photons."

Created by
: Brian Williams, Clownfish Direct
Breakdown
:
75% Onyx Percula,
25% Darwin Ocellaris,
with a Picasso Gene
Top Images: Sea & Reef Aquaculture. Main Image - Clownfish Direct / Brian Williams
X
"PICASSO HALF BLACK PHOTON"
A. (
PHOTON X
percula
"Picasso")
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics - Main Images: Ross Bailey, Photon Flakes Clownfish
X
"PHOTON FLAKES"
A. (
Snow Onyx

" X
ocellaris
"Darwin")
Parentage:
A.
Snow Onyx X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
Found out about this hybrid in 2015 in an internet post by Eddie LaGasse, citing Harry O'Hagan as the creator, but I then found out it was actually first created in 2013 in Australia by breeder Ross Bailey. Precedence dictates naming rights to the first, and Bailey has been using the name "Black Photon Flakes" for this slight variation on a theme. 50% off the offspring of this pairing will fail to inherit the Snowflake Gene....Bailey reports selling the normally patterned (wild type, 3 stripe) fish as simply Black Photons, however that is incorrect as Black Photons are 50% Darwin, 50% Onyx Perc.

As such, the wild-type (3 bar) fish currently lack a name.

Created by
: Ross Bailey
Breakdown
: 25%
ocellaris
, 25% Onyx Percula, 50%
ocellaris
"Darwin", WITH Snowflake Gene
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics - Main Image Ross Bailey, Photon Flakes Clownfish
X
"
unnamed wild type
"
A. (
Snow Onyx

" X
ocellaris
"Darwin")
Parentage:
A.
Snow Onyx X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin"

Additional Info
:
See the preceding slide for more info on this cross In short, these are the "wild type" offspring of a Snow Onyx paired wtih a Darwin / Black Ocellaris, as only 50% get the Snowflake gene. Those 50% with the gene are called "Black Photon Flake", and had already been named by Ross Bailey. However, Bailey had never applied a properly unique name to these wild type offspring, and in a generous move, suggested that Harry O'Hagan, who is probably the 2nd person to have bred this pairing, be given the honor of naming the non-genetic offspring. We await O'Hagan's name.

Created by
: Ross Bailey
Breakdown
: 25%
ocellaris
, 25% Onyx Percula, 50%
ocellaris
"Darwin"
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics - Main Image Ross Bailey, Photon Flakes Clownfish
X
"
pending names & photos
"
A.
(Photon X
ocellaris
"Davinci"
)
Parentage:
A.
Photon X
A. ocellaris
"DaVinci"

Additional Info
:
On the shortlist April 27, 2015, awaiting proof and photos. Based on the parentage, as seen in the prior hybrid, 50% will have the Davinci gene, 50% will be wild type.

In short, the only real difference between this and the Dr. / Dr. Davinci is that the contributions of Black Ocellaris and Percula are in balance with each other. Effectively, it may difficult to discern this hybrid from many others.

Created by
: Paul Wyre
Breakdown
: 50%
ocellaris
, 25% Onyx Percula, 25% Darwin Ocellaris, with Davinci Gene
Top Images - left, LiveAquaria.com - Main Images Steven Sifuentes
X
"Dr., and Dr. Davinci"
A.
(Double Black Photon

" X
ocellaris
"Davinci")
Parentage:
A.
Double Black Photon X
A. ocellaris
"Davinci"

Additional Info
:
Double Black Photon is 75% Black Ocellaris, 25% Percula. Mate that to Ocellaris with a Davinci gene, and you get an expected offspring spread of 50% wild types, 50% with the Davinci Gene. Steven Sifuentes named the designer type "Dr. Davinci", and thus, the wild type hybrid deferred to be simply "Dr." Not the outward similarity to "MochaVinci"

Created by
: Steven Sifuentes. 2014
Breakdown
: 50%
ocellaris
, 37.5% Black Ocellaris, 12.5% Onyx Percula. With Davinci gene.
Young Dr. (wild-type, 3 barred) and Dr. Davinci (fish with mutant gene and thus, designer markings) at left showing offspring spread with two phenotypes. More mature Dr. Davinci at right.
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics - Main Image Ross Bailey, Photon Flakes Clownfish
X
"placeholder"
A.
(Placeholder X
Placeholder
"Davinci"
)
Parentage:
A.
Photon X
A. ocellaris
"DaVinci"

Additional Info
:
On the shortlist April 27, 2015, awaiting proof and photos. Based on the parentage, as seen in the prior hybrid, 50% will have the Davinci gene, 50% will be wild type.

In short, the only real difference between this and the Dr. / Dr. Davinci is that the contributions of Black Ocellaris and Percula are in balance with each other. Effectively, it may difficult to discern this hybrid from many others.

Created by
: Paul Wyre
Breakdown
: 50%
ocellaris
, 25% Onyx Percula, 25% Darwin Ocellaris, with Davinci Gene
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics - Main Image Ross Bailey, Photon Flakes Clownfish
X
"Placeholder"
A.
(Placeholder X
Placeholder
"Davinci"
)
Parentage:
A.
Photon X
A. ocellaris
"DaVinci"

Additional Info
:
On the shortlist April 27, 2015, awaiting proof and photos. Based on the parentage, as seen in the prior hybrid, 50% will have the Davinci gene, 50% will be wild type.

In short, the only real difference between this and the Dr. / Dr. Davinci is that the contributions of Black Ocellaris and Percula are in balance with each other. Effectively, it may difficult to discern this hybrid from many others.

Created by
: Paul Wyre
Breakdown
: 50%
ocellaris
, 25% Onyx Percula, 25% Darwin Ocellaris, with Davinci Gene
Top Images - Sustainable Aquatics - Main Image Ross Bailey, Photon Flakes Clownfish
X
"Placeholder"
A.
(Placeholder X
Placeholder
"Davinci"
)
Parentage:
A.
Photon X
A. ocellaris
"DaVinci"

Additional Info
:
On the shortlist April 27, 2015, awaiting proof and photos. Based on the parentage, as seen in the prior hybrid, 50% will have the Davinci gene, 50% will be wild type.

In short, the only real difference between this and the Dr. / Dr. Davinci is that the contributions of Black Ocellaris and Percula are in balance with each other. Effectively, it may difficult to discern this hybrid from many others.

Created by
: Paul Wyre
Breakdown
: 50%
ocellaris
, 25% Onyx Percula, 25% Darwin Ocellaris, with Davinci Gene
"CHOCOLATE MIDNIGHT"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Black Ice" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin Midnight"

Additional Info
:
In 2015, Clownfish breeder Brian Williams set out to prove the hypothesis that an initial hybridization, followed by at least 2 back-crosses, was used to create "Black Snowflake" Ocellaris. He created "Black Ice", the initial intraspecies hybrid (Darwin X ocellaris "Snowflake"). Then, for back cross, he utilized a "Midnight" Black Ocellaris, which we presume carries a Naked gene which, to the best of my knowledge, arose or was otherwise isolated independently in pure Darwin ocellaris.

When adding in the Naked Gene, the offspring phenotype / genotype spread went from 2 to 4, giving us the first "Chocolate Mochas" which carry a naked gene. As with naked genes, the range of stripe reduction ranges from extreme misbars to fully naked fish (a couple not entirely naked offspring are shown here). The other new type is on the next slide.

Named by
: Brian Williams
Breakdown
: 25% Ocellaris,
75% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
top left, ORA, Top Right, Sustainable Aquatics. bottom images Brian Williams / ClownfishDepot
X
"BLACKER LIGHTNING"
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Black Ice" X
A. ocellaris
"Darwin Midnight"

Additional Info
:
This new variation on the "Chocolate Mocha" base hybrid (75% Darwin, 25% Ocellaris), includes both the Naked and Snowflake genes. As such, the barring pattern is the same as Rudy's "Midnight Lightning", just on a fish which has a little more orange ocellaris genetic influence.

See the prior entry on Chocolate Midnight for how this phenotype / genotype came about.









Named by
: Brian Williams
Breakdown
: 25% Ocellaris,
75% Darwin Ocellaris
Amphiprion ocellaris
top left, ORA, Top Right, Sustainable Aquatics. bottom images Brian Williams / ClownfishDepot
X
Images: Sustainable Aquatics
"SUNSET MOCHA SNOWFLAKE"
Parentage:
A.
Black Ice X
A. ocellaris


Additional Info
:
These are the siblings from this parentage which carry the snowflake gene. It is worth noting that I anticipate the addition of both Sunset Mocha DaVinci, and Sunset Mocha Frostbites, by Steve Sifuentes, by using a DaVinci parent instead of the wild-type ocellaris. It is noteworthy that in the intitial hybrid back cross, Shelly saw a wide range of snowflake gene expression in her offspring, from very faint to almost solidly white fish.

Created by
: Shelly Dupchak Brynston, 2014

Breakdown:
75% Ocellaris,
25% Darwin Ocellaris,
with a Snowflake Gene

Amphiprion ocellaris
Top left: ORA, Top Right: Sea & Reef, Main Image and sibling phenotpye spread, - Shelly Dupchack Brynston
X
"SPLIT-FACE"
X
A.
(
barberi
X
ephippium
)
Parentage:
A. barberi
X
A. ephippium

Additional Info
:
Paul Tremblay documented the spawning of this pairing on February 17th, 2015. The offspring at 8-10 months of age show clear intermediate coloration between the parents, with broken headstripes and red bodies and fins.

This is one of those hybrids that is probably best off being never repeated, as the results will likely be difficult discern from the parental species, and therefore could cause problems for conservation breeding.

Created by
: Paul Tremblay & Tino Rossanese
Breakdown
: 50% Barberi, 50% Fire Clown (A.
ephippium
)
Images: Paul Tremblay, 2 Clowns
"PICASSNOW PHOTON"
X
A. (ocellaris
"BLACK SNOWFLAKE" X
percula
"Onyx")
Images: Black Snowflake = Sustainable Aquatics, Picasso Percula = Sea & Reef Aquacutlure, Picassnow Photon = Chris Chen
Parentage:
A. ocellaris
"Black Snowflake" X
A. percula
"Picasso"

Additional Info
:
Chris Chen (Superfish on the MBI) produced this new variant, a multi-gene Photon. Now, technically, since all Black Snowflakes are considered intraspecific hybrids themselves, technically this does not belong here, but in the complex hybrids section, as this fish contains trace amounts of
A. ocellaris
.

Pragmatically, as breeders, there comes a point in back crosses where a fish effectively performs the same as something pure, even if it isn't actually pure. So from a "calculating the offspring" standpoint, we already know that we're going to get fish which fit the mold for Black Photon and Snowflake Black Photon, as well as this new Multi-gene Variety. Interestingly, Chen reports no Smocularis / Twilight offspring to date, although calculators and current genetic understandings demand they should be present.

Whether to treat a fish like a Black Snowflake as "pure" or not, from a hybrid standpoint, is dangerous for what it could represent to the wild type offspring when they are misunderstood as pure forms.

Created by
: Sanjay Joshi
Breakdown
: 50% Percula, 50% Black Snowflake (> 43.25% Darwin Ocellaris < 6.75% A. ocellaris.)
"WHITE GOLD & WG LIGHTNING" (2)
Premnas biaculeatus
images - GSM = Sustainable Aquatics, Lighting Maroon = Sea & Reef Aquaculture
White Gold Lightning = OperationReefReady.com
Parentage : Gold Stripe Maroon X PNG Lightning Maroon

Additional Info :
As noted, the simple hybrid of the Gold Stripe Maroon (GSM) and the White Stripe Maroon (WSM) has occurred for years, and may often times be sold into the market without any proper name or identification as a hybrid. We have provided the official name for the wild type, 3 stripe offspring of this hybrid as "WHITE GOLD". What little documentation exists suggests that fish will develop mild gold coloration, and inconsistently from one individual to the next.

In 2015, mulitple breeders obtained Lightning Maroon Clownfish from Sea & Reef Aquaculture and began the ultimate pursuit of a Gold Lightning Maroon Clownfish. The first step in this misguided breeding is the initial hybridization of the GSM with the Lightning Maroon. This results in the anticipated 50% wild type, 50% Lightning-gene carrying offspring, and thus, "WHITE GOLD LIGHTNING" Maroon Clownfish had been created. For the first year of their life, these hybrids are 100% indistinguisable from the pure fish.

Further hybridization into designer Gold Stripe Maroon forms, as well as further back-crosses to GSM, ensure that both captive populations of WSM and GSM are at risk to be lost due to hybridization (this has largely already happened with the Darwin Black Ocellaris).

WG Lightning - Created by :Paul Wyre, 50% GSM, 50% PNG Lightning Maroon
X
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