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Solar System

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by

Asuka Kumagai

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Solar System

Solar System
Sun
Greek philosophers did not realize that earth itself is a planet. They thought Earth hung motionless at very center of the universe. They believed that the five planets they saw (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) revolved around Earth.
The Sun
Plays the role of a big anchor, which creates gravity that keeps our planet and the other planets of the solar system in a small space.
If it weren't for the sun, our planet would simply fly off loose into the universe.
Closest star to the Earth
The sun is made of gas,
which is why its different parts rotate at different speeds.
The sun is way bigger than the Earth. In fact its radius is 109 times bigger than the radius of the Earth. For those of you who are curious, the sun’s Radius is 696,000km and the Earth’s radius is 6,376km.
The sun’s average surface temperature is 5700 C

Sun Spots
regions on the solar surface that appear dark because they are cooler than the surrounding photosphere,
typically by about 1500 K
Sunspots develop and persist for periods ranging from hours to months, and are carried around the surface of the Sun by its rotation
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter

Saturn
Neptune
Uranus
Pluto
Mercury
Smallest planet
(slightly bigger then the moon)
Closest to the sun
Mercury is a rocky planet,
also known as a terrestrial planet.
Mercury has a solid, cratered surface,
much like Earth's moon.
No atmosphere
Venus
Venus is only a little smaller than Earth.
One day on Venus lasts as long as 243 Earth days

(the time it takes for Venus to rotate or spin once).

Venus makes a complete orbit around the sun (a year in Venusian time) in 225 Earth days.
Venus is a rocky planet, also known as a terrestrial planet.

Venus' solid surface is a cratered and volcanic landscape
.
Venus' thick and toxic atmosphere is made up mostly of carbon dioxide
(CO2)
and nitrogen
(N2)
, with clouds of sulfuric acid
(H2SO4)
droplets.
Venus has no moons.
Black holes
Milky Way
Galaxy: A massive gravitational bound system consisting of stars

Milky Way: The Galaxy that contains our solar system

Light Year: The distance light travels in a year

*6 new stars form every year

Inner Solar System: Mercury , Venus, Earth, Mars

Outer Solar System: Jupital, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

* Outer planets make up 99% of known mass orbiting the sun

Planet Criteria
Must orbit the sun
Have sufficient gravity to form the spherical shape
Must clear objects in its orbital neighborhood
Mars
Jupiter

One day on Mars takes just a little over 24 hours
(the time it takes for Mars to rotate or spin once).
Mars makes a complete orbit around the sun
(a year in Martian time)
in 687 Earth days.
Mars is a rocky planet, also known as a terrestrial planet. Mars' solid surface has been altered by volcanoes, impacts, crustal movement, and dust storms
Mars has a thin atmosphere made up mostly of carbon dioxide
(CO2)
, nitrogen
(N2)
and argon
(Ar)
.
Mars has two moons named Phobos and Deimos.
Jupiter
One day on Jupiter takes about 10 hours

(the time it takes for Jupiter to rotate or spin once)
.
Jupiter makes a complete orbit around the sun
(a year in Jovian time)

in about 12 Earth years

(4,333 Earth days)
.
Jupiter is a gas-giant planet and therefore does not have a solid surface.
Jupiter's atmosphere is made up mostly of hydrogen
(H2)

and helium
(He)
.
Jupiter has 50 known moons
Jupiter cannot support life, however, some of Jupiter's moons have oceans underneath their crusts that might support life.
Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a gigantic storm
(about the size of two to three Earths)
that has been raging for hundreds of years
One day on Saturn takes 10.7 hours
(the time it takes for Saturn to rotate or spin once)
. Saturn makes a complete orbit around the sun
(a year in Saturnian time)
in 29 Earth years
(10,756 Earth days)
.
Saturn is a gas-giant planet and does not have a solid surface.
Saturn's atmosphere is made up mostly of hydrogen
(H2)
and helium
(He)
.
Saturn has 53 known moons with an additional 9 moons awaiting confirmation of their discovery.
Saturn has the most spectacular ring system, which is made up of seven rings with several gaps and divisions between them.
One day on Uranus takes about 17 hours
(the time it takes for Uranus to rotate or spin once)
. Uranus makes a complete orbit around the sun
(a year in Uranian time)
in about 84 Earth years.
Uranus is a gas giant and therefore does not have a solid surface.
Uranus has an atmosphere which is mostly made up of hydrogen
(H2)
and helium
(He)
, with a small amount of methane
(CH4)
.
Uranus has 27 moons.
Like Venus, Uranus has a retrograde rotation (east to west). Unlike any of the other planets, Uranus rotates on its side, which means it spins horizontally
One day on Neptune takes about 16 hours
(the time it takes for Neptune to rotate or spin once).
Neptune makes a complete orbit around the sun
(a year in Neptunian time)
in about 165 Earth years
(60,190 Earth days).
Like the other gas giants, Neptune does not have a solid surface.
Neptune's atmosphere is made up mostly of hydrogen (H2), helium (He) and methane (CH4).
Neptune has 13 moons.

-
Earth is the third planet from the sun
and the fifth largest in the solar system.
-
Oceans
at least 2.5 miles deep
cover nearly 70 percent of Earth's surface.
-Near the surface, an ocean of air or
the atmosphere consists of 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and 1 percent other ingredients envelops us.
-This atmosphere affects Earth's long-term climate and short-term local weather;
shields us from nearly all harmful radiation coming from the sun; and protects us from meteors as well.

Dwarf Planet
it has not become gravitationally dominant and it shares its orbital space with other bodies of a similar size
.
Pluto's surface is composed of a mixture of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide ices. The dwarf planet also has polar caps and regions of frozen methane and nitrogen.
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