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Transcript of Popular Music
19th-centruy popular music wasn't greatly different from the waltzes, marches and light classical songs of the period. America's slavery resulted in fresh musical ideas. This includes complex syncopation and blue notes.
In the 1890s, ragtime was the rage. The blues took longer to catch on. The invention of the gramophone record led to the spread of all types of popular music in the early 20th century.
In 1920, jazz had become the main popular music. Jazz consists of mainly improvised variations on a chord pattern and changed along the tastes for a century. In 1930, swing became one of the most popular music.
In the 1950s, rock and roll became famous in America, followed by Britain in the 1960s Introduction Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, trumpeter, bandleader, and composer, considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. Miles Davis Richard Melville Hall Known by his stage name Moby, is an American musician, DJ, and photographer. The characteristics of the composition of pop music The INTRODUCTION usually builds up suspense for the listener so when the downbeat drops in, it creates a release or surprise.It may be based on the chords used in the verse, chorus, bridge, or a stock "turnaround" progression may be played.
In popular music a VERSE roughly corresponds with a poetic stanza.
The CHORUS conveys the main message of the song. In popular music, the chorus normally follows the verse.
The MIDDLE EIGHT is often quieter than the main song, which contrasts with Solos, which are generally more energetic. In slower songs it can be used to generate energy.
The COLLISION is used in fast-paced music, and it is designed to create tension and drama.
The SOLO is the same melodies that were performed by the lead singer, often with flourishes and embellishments Form in popular music is most often sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, and bridge. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, verse-chorus form, and the twelve bar blues. Popular music songs are rarely composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics (songs composed in this fashion are said to be "through-composed").
The verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse usually has the same melody (possibly with some slight modifications), but the lyrics change for most verses. The chorus (or "refrain") usually has a melodic phrase and a key lyrical line which is repeated. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda ("tag"), but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs. Pop songs that use verses and choruses often have a bridge, which, as its name suggests, is a section which connects the verse and chorus at one or more points in the song.
The verse and chorus are usually repeated throughout a song, while the bridge, intro, and coda (also called an "outro") tend to be used only once. Some pop songs may have a solo section, particularly in rock or blues-influenced pop. During the solo section one or more instruments play a melodic line which may be the melody used by the singer, or, in blues- or jazz-influenced pop, the solo may be improvised based on the chord progression. A solo usually features a single instrumental performer (e.g., a guitarist or a harmonica player) or less commonly, more than one instrumentalist (e.g., a trumpeter and a sax player).
Thirty-two-bar form uses four sections, most often eight measures long each (48=32), two verses or A sections, a contrasting B section (the bridge or "middle-eight") and a return of the verse in one last A section (AABA). Verse-chorus form or ABA form may be combined with AABA form, in compound AABA forms. Variations such as a1 and a2 can also be used. The repetition of one chord progression may mark off the only section in a simple verse form such as the twelve bar blues. By Serena & Sheila Popular Music in Context Vocabulary A disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm; placement of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn't normally occur. Complex Syncopation Blue Notes The flattened third, fifth and seventh of the major scale. Middle Eight In music theory, middle 8 refers to the section of a song which has a significantly different melody from the rest of the song, usually after the second chorus in a song. Collision A section of music where different parts overlap one another, usually for a short period. Ad lib An ad lib section of a song occurs when the main lead vocal or a second lead vocal breaks away from the already established lyric and/or melody to add melodic interest and intensity to the end of the song. Ragtime Gramophone Record Swing A blend of syncopated rhythms ('ragged time' and familiar western harmonies. An analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. A style of jazz. Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad? This song is described as 'downtempo', with minimal lyrics and repetitive nature. The work consists of loops built up in layers and the score shows how the main ideas are put together.
Moby's working method is to start with his chosen vocal samples, which have an authentic 'vintage' quality. Add new chords and rhythms to the samples, and then built up the track a series of layers, using Steinberg Cubase software.
Both samples are harmonised very simply, using a falling harmonic sequence. The music is printed without a key signature, and the Dorian mode is also used. The C-major sections are described as hexatonic, and the music is entirely diatonic in either the Dorian mode on A or C major. Moby regards this as a verse-and-chorus structure. All Blues 'All Blues' is 11 1/2 minutes long, from Davis' album 'Kind of Blue'. It is regarded as the best-selling jazz album. It was performed by a sextet. Davis had planned the tracks only hours before the recording. The members were all given brief sketches of scales and melodic ideas, along with verbal instructions to improvise on. 'All Blues' is related to the blues. Blue melodies are often made more expressive by using blue notes, which are often performed just a little flatter than normal. 'All Blues' uses the Mixolydian mode and is often described as modal jazz. Transcriptions were made from the song. This piece is a fast jazz waltz. It is printed in 12/8 or 6/8 The first bar of the score is marked swing quavers. ‘All Blues' uses the most common of all structures in jazz, known as a head arrangement. In 'All Blues', the head is the 12-bar blues chord progression. We could regard the piece as a set of variations on the head. The choruses are framed by an introduction at the start and a coda at the end. In addition, each of the main sections is introduced by a four-bar riff. Sextet A group of six musicians. Blue Notes Lowering the pitch of the third and seventh degrees of the scale. Downtempo A more relaxed style, often used in chill-out rooms or as background music Harmonic sequence Mode A scale. Mixolydian Mode In other words the chords and bass in the first four bars are repeated a step lower in the new four bars. Playing the white notes on a keyboard from G to the G an octave higher. Dorian
mode Which you can find by laying the white notes on a keyboard from D to D an octave higher Hexatonic Use only six of the seven pitches in C- major sections Transcription Many pop and jazz pieces are improvised at the time, so the score has been made later by writing down what was played in the recording. Swing Quavers A rhythmic device that is common in much jazz, and refers to playing pairs of quavers unevenly, making the first slightly longer than the second. Head Arrangement Jeff Buckley The most common of all structures in jazz. It consists of a chord progression that is called the head because it is memorized by all the players. An American singer-songwriter and
guitarist.(November 17, 1966-May 29, 1997) Grace Guitar Tap A way of notating pitches by showing finger positions on the instrument, and is often accompanied by an indication of the rhythm shown as headless notes about the stave, although that is not done here. Modal Cadence A progression that is common in modal music. Added 6th Chord A chord of G major plus a 6th above the root, resulting in the notes G, B, D and E. It is one of the characteristic sounds in jazz of this period. Grace is a song from Jeff's album Grace, which is often described as folk music or alternative folk. It includes Buckley's interpretations of Lalic Wine, Leonard Cohen's Hallelujah.The words are over 500 years old. Buckley's own composition are just as diverse, with influences ranging from jazz to heavy metal. However, much of his music retains the folk tradition of using song as a vehicle for story-telling.