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Chapter 7- "Methyl Madness: Road to the Final Phenotype"

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Victoria Farias

on 17 May 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 7- "Methyl Madness: Road to the Final Phenotype"

What is epigenetics and how does the author relate it to childhood obesity?
Epigenetics is the concern with the study of how children inherit and express seemingly new traits from the parents without changes in the children's DNA. The author relates it to if your mother eats unhealthy foods during pregnancy then it will affect the baby metabolism.
What is DNA methylation? How does it explain agouti gene?
DNA methylatin is the process of genetic suppression. The mice still contained the agouti gene but the gene was not expressed because of DNA methylation. DNA methylation occured because the vitamins they were fed and didn't let the gene express itself.
What is thrifty phenotype hypothesis?
Epigenetics can change your phenotype. the methyl marker can turn off the gene being express. An example is poor nutrition develop a "thrifty" metabolism, which is more efficient at hoarding energy.
What can explain the difference in identical twins acquiring disease?
The twins have the same DNA but methylation cause the one twin to have cancer and the other to be cancer free. the different in twins in disease also depend on the enviroment.
Survival of the Sickest
: Chapter 7- "Methyl Madness: Road to the Final Phenotype"

Epigenetics may be partially responsible for the childhood epidemic of obesity
Epigenetics is responsible for childhood obesity because the change express in the gene cause the metabolism to slow down. the slow metabolism does not let the food digest as quick, so it is stored into fat causing excess fat.
" Good times mean more boys. Tough times mean more girls." Explain
If there is a pregnant women during a change in the environment, than the women react to the threat of the environment with an automatic and dramatic reaction. If the outcome of the disaster is bad, than there is more girls. when there is more boys, the outcome of the environment is good".
Make connections between the following set of terms
Vitamin supplements/ agouti mice:The vitamin supplements cause the agouti mice not to have the regular phenotype of being yellow and fat. the agouti gene is turned off because of the diet of vitamin supplements
Snaked/ long tail lizard During pregnancy, if the mother detects if there is predator( snakes) in the environment, than the lizard grows a long tail as so will his body grow in size.
Baker Hypothesis/ fathers who smoke
Father play a role in the sons because of the y- chromosome. the Backer hypothesis states the gene may not be expressed. The toxin inhaled by the father cause a change in his sperms. the sperms are ready to create a baby with a thrifty metabolism because the father smokes.
Smoking grandmothers/ a is smoking children When the grandma smoke while prregnant, than the children will mostly have asthma. the daughter eggs suplly is effected because the epigenetic effect is triggered by the grandma.
Betle Nut chewing/ Cancer Belle Nut is like nicotine, Chewing Betle nut csn lead to hypermethylation of three cancer fighting genes.
How does the blood, Survival of the sickest support the quote by Theodosius Dobzhansky?

Our reaction when we read the book.
"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."
The blood supports the quote by Theordosius Dohzhabsky because blood is an impotant factor of evolution. Blood can be tesed to see if there is a diseases in your body. You could cure the disease causing an end to the disease and immunity to yourself. Survival of the Sickest suppots the quote because although the diseases that we still have can be harmful, evolution kept the diseases around because they still can be benefital to other problem. Example:Hemochromatosis helped people survive the Bubonic plague and Cystic Fibrosis help protect us from Tuberculosis.
we were amazed when we read
Survival of the sickest.
The book made us relized why these diseases in our body don't disapear and needed because the defferent diseases have benefitial factors to the person, like with hemochromatosis.
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