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Transcript of Montessori
1870 - 1952
* Born in Chiaravalle, Italy
* First Italian woman to become a physician
* Professor of anthropology at the University of Rome (1904)
* Professor of anthropology at the University of Rome (1904)
* Studied child psychology and observed children in mental institutions.
* Co-directed a school for training teachers to work with mentally disabled children and developed materials to assist them.
In 1907 Maria Montessori opened her first classroom for normal children of uneducated and poor factory workers in San Lorenzo, Italy. She had little money for furniture or toys, and no trained teacher. However, she gave the children the materials she had developed and they learned reading, writing, math and other skills independently.
In 10 years her books were translated into 20 languages and her methodology was being implemented in Europe, USA, Japan.
In 100 years her work has been supported by educational, psychological and medical research. Today there are about 30,000 Montessori schools worldwide. In addition, many of her ideas have been included in traditional education.
“It is true that we cannot make a genius. We can only give each child the chance to fulfill his potential possibilities.”
- Maria Montessori
What is the method?
Concrete to Abstract
Successive Levels of Independence
"The secret of intelligence is that you cannot give directly to the conscious. You must give first to the subconscious. If the subconscious has acquired the experience, the intelligence will later accept it. "
The 1946 London Lectures
"Never give more to the mind than you give to the hand."
The Absorbent Mind.
Montessori learning is based on a long process of preparing the child to understand a concept - which he is then invited to discover himself. The materials are used to guide the child in this process.
The approach of Montessori education is to develop abstract concepts through concrete physical materials. This allows for a multi-sensory and application-based learning. The students understand the meaning of their abstract studies because they are learning these ideas through practical activities. The shift from the concrete to the abstract is always very gradual and the students are always welcome to return to the concrete materials if needed.
One of the main goals of Montessori education is to create independent adults. This is done by constructing an environment where the child is given the responsibility and independence that he can handle at each stage of development.
"Montessori is an education for independence, preparing not just for school, but for life. No one can be free, unless he is independent."
The Montessori classroom is structured around the children. They learn from a standardized curriculum and materials, but at their own pace in a holistic manner. The multi-aged classrooms are non-competitive communities where children learn from each other. The teacher's role is to guide the child to the work and to become unnecessary.
2 - 3
3 - 6
6 - 9
9 - 12
15 - 18
12 - 15
Maria Montessori studied children through observation and recognized four distinct stages of development, which she called "planes." Each plane has its own physical and psychological characteristics and are so different from each other, that can be seen as re-births. She created an education system designed to aid this natural process.
"Scientific observation has established that education is not what the teacher gives; education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual, and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences upon the environment."
Education for a New World
Repetition is an essential part of Montessori learning. Mastering the concepts through the manipulation of the materials allows the children to develop concentration and confidence needed to explore on their own.
"Passing from simple objects to objects of ever-increasing complexity, he becomes possessed of a culture."
Advanced Montessori Method
"To aid life, leaving it free to develop, however, that is the basic task of the educator."
The teacher's first duty is to watch over the environment.
First Plane: "Help me do it myself!"
Physical: learns to breathe, eat, move, manipulate objects, balance and speak
teeth and hair appear learns to speak & forms the language center
Psychological Characteristics: takes in all knowledge and information through the senses; forms the ego and mental functions, such as memory, will, reason, intellectual thought; has a strong sense of order
Social Characteristics: works on developing himself
Needs: acceptance, love, respect, order and a sense of security
“the most important period of life is not the age of university studies but the period from birth to age of six … for that is the time when intelligence itself, [a child’s] great implement is being formed …”
Physical Characteristics: milk teeth fall out, body stretches, hair thickens
Psychological Characteristics: period of greatest acquisition of knowledge and strong cultural interest; learns how to relate to others; develops abstract thinking and an interest in causality
Social Characteristics: a strong sense of justice and moral values; is interested in social collaboration in same-sex groups
Needs: exploration of the world, nature and culture; to understand what is just; to collaborate
Second Plane: "How?" "Why?" "It's not fair!"
“We have provided the schools and materials; they are [necessary but] not enough, he requires to explore the physical world and society… [and] fostering mental development at this phase is very important.”
Third Plane: "Don't tell me what to do!"
“It is the education of adolescents that is important, because adolescence is the time when the child enters on the stage of manhood and becomes a member of society.”
Physical Characteristics: sexual maturity, hormonal changes and rapid physical growth; lack of energy and delicate health.
Psychological Characteristics: fragile and volatile emotions, decrease in intellectual capacity and extreme sensitivity to criticism; lack of confidence, worry about appearances doubt of self.
Social Characteristics: a strong desire to fit in causes to gather in groups by interest and to rebel against authority; searches for heroes and has a great concern for humanity and the world and wishes to contribute
Needs: respect, support and acceptance; to find a vocation and to connect to the land; cultural education which comes through direct exposure to society; economic independence; to understand his place in society and history.
0 - 6
6 - 12
12 - 18
Fourth Plane: "What can I do?"
"keys to the world"
18 - 24
Physical Characteristics: physical growth and brain development basically complete.
Psychological Characteristics: spirituality, self knowledge, self realization; has a moral consciousness and feels responsibility for the world and his part.
Social Characteristics:forms long term relationships, seeks education and career
Needs: to understand himself and his role in the world and to relate to something higher; need for creativity, spirituality and self-growth.
completion of each plane is essential in moving on to the next one
“The individual should be the man who knows how to make his own choice of action having passed to perfection the proceeding stages. He should be as a live spark and aware of the open gate to potentialities of prospective human life and of his own responsibilities.”
Maria Motessori understood that if the person is passing through stages with different physical, emotional and social needs, we must help them by creating a different learning environment for each plane of development.
Prepared Environment is the basis of all Montessori schools around the world.
peaceful & safe
full of meaningful work
engaging & stimulating
encouraging & respectful
Children are given freedom to work and move around within suitable guidelines that enable them to act as part of a social group.
The Prepared Environment must be:
By meeting the children where they are at and reaching out to them we hope to improve their experience of today as well as their future.