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Cell Organelles

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jakeline mireles

on 22 January 2015

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

-The golgi complex is a single membrane flattened layered organelle, like pancakes. Its location is near the cell.
-Lysosomes use chemicals to break down food, and also worn out cell parts.
Cell Membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-The endoplasmic reticulum has passageways that carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
Grouping #1
-endoplasmic reticulum
Cell Organelles
-Ribosomes collect amino acids to create proteins.
-The nucleus is mainly made up by the nuclear envelope. It has a double membrane which encloses the entire organelle, but also isolates its contents, from the cellular cytoplasm.
-The nucleus is the "control center" of the cell, like the brain. It carries the cell's DNA in chromosomes.
-The cell membrane is a thin double-layer lipid, containing chains of proteins. Fat surrounds the cell. the cell membrane is semipermeable.
-The cell membrane controls what material enters and exits the cell. Its job is to protect the cell from its surroundings.
-The mitochondria has a double-membrane. The outer membrane is smooth, and the inner membrane has cristae, which increases its surface area.
- The mitochondria acts as a digestive system. It helps keep the cell full of energy to carry out its functions.
Golgi Complex
-The golgi complex receives proteins and material from the ER, then packages them, and lastly distributes them.
-The vacuole is surrounded by a membrane, and is fluid filled.
-The vacuole stores food, water, wastes, and other materials.
-Ribosomes have two subunits. The large subunit joins amino acids, and the small subunit reads RNA.
-Lysosomes, also known as vesicles, are round organelles surrounded by a membrane, containing digestive enzymes.
If the nucleus goes wrong, it'll pretty much affect every organelle, because the nucleus is the "control center". After the nucleus is affected, the ribosomes will then have trouble with the pores on the nucleus. The rough endoplasmic reticulum will lastly be affected as well, since it has ribosomes on it, and the ribosomes have already been defected by the nucleus.
Disease: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
-It incorrectly locates the nuclei in the nucleus. The genes are defective, and as a result, a protein called emerin is created. It then affects the nucleus envelope.
-Due to the genes in the nucleus being defected, it affects the skeletal muscles and heart muscles in the body.
-Researchers think this lack of emerin interferes with the reorganization of the nuclear membrane after a cell has divided, leading to weak or dying cells.
-Researchers have discovered that when genes are defective, they are then lead to EDMD. They do research through gene therapy, gene silencing, and cell therapy.
Pathology:Cell Membrane
Disease: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
-Once it's affected by the disease, the cell membrane is unable to recover and fix itself, it then gets destroyed, and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy takes over.
Mechanisms of Development:
-Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is caused because the changed gene fails to produce effectively any functional dystrophy.
Consequences of Changes:
-Severe muscle disorder, caused by defected genes
Medical Advancements:
-The advances in medicine have had a huge part in helping people with DMD live longer. New form of therapies for DMD have improved as well.
Pathology: Mitochondria
Disease: Mitochondrial Myopathies
-As the cell is filled with a defective mitochondria, it not only becomes disadvantaged of ATP, but it also possibly can collect a backlog of unused fuel molecules and oxygen, causing disastrous effects.
-caused by mutations in the genes
-Mitochondrial Myopathies are inherited
-Mitochondrial Myopathies causes prominent muscular problems.
-There are no specific treatment for this disease. However, there's physical therapy.
Pathology: Golgi Complex
-There's a defect in the micro tubules of the golgi complex
-Achondrogenesis doesn't allow the body to grow, because of the lack of growth hormone.
-There aren't any existing treatments for Achondrogenesis. However, there's some medication to limit the pain of the patient.
Pathology: Vacuole
Disease:Vacuolar Myopathy
Structural Alterations of the Vacuole:
-After vacuoles appear in the muscle cell, they stop the muscles from working correctly.
Mechanism of Development:
-many unusual vacuoles appear in the muscle cell
Consequences of Changes:
- muscles of your legs and arms are affects, as well as other parts of the human body
Pathology: Ribosomes
Disease:Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome
Consequences of Changes:
-inherited disease that mainly affects the skeletal system, pancreas, and bone barrow
Pathology: Lysosomes
Structural Alterations of Lysosomes:
Mechanism of Development:
Consequences of Changes:
Medical Advancements:
Pathology: Endoplasmic Reticulum
Structural Alterations of the ER:
Mechanism of Development:
Consequences of Changes:
Medical Advancements:
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