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Acid Rain- Automotive Coatings

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Tamanna Trehan

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of Acid Rain- Automotive Coatings

Acid Rain
Main chemicals
How's it formed in the atmosphere
Balanced equation
What is a buffer
ecological effects of acid rain on terrestrial and aquatic organisms
Define "Acid Rain"
Acid rain is due to air pollution. When fuel is burnt, many different chemicals are formed. The smoke that releases from these chemicals are; fumes from cars or a fire that contains many different toxic and invisible particles that may prove harmful to the environment. Power stations, factories and cars, all burn fuels and therefore they all produce polluting gases. Some of these gases react with drops of water in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids. The rains from these clouds then fall as very weak acid, which is why it’s known as "acid rain".
Rain in balance with atmospheric carbon dioxide, has a pH of 5.6.
Almost everywhere in the world, the pH of rain is lower than this. The main pollutants responsible for acid rain are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Acid deposition influences mainly the pH of freshwater.

Acid rain is caused mainly by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and gasoline. Oxides of nitrogen and Sulphur are released into the air when fossil fuels are burnt and when they mix with the precipitation in clouds, acid rain is formed.

Acidic Pollutants
Particles such as nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide that, when mixed with water.. acid forms.
This is because water resists changes in pH better than others. Water that resists a change in pH is known to be buffered. Depending on the buffering capacity of the surface water, one area could be severely damaged by acid rain that does not seem fatal in another at all.
Acid rain is a human related problem. Since our industries tend to burn fossil fuels; coal and oil, they release an enormous amount of sulfur. This sulfur combines with the Oxygen present in air to form sulfur dioxide (SO2). Also, since we drive cars rather than ride bikes or walk, nitrogen oxides is produced (NO or NO 2 or NO) in air from burning gasoline.
Environmental Consequences / Human Impacts
How are lakes in Ontario affected by acid rain
Acid rain effects forestry, lakes, water/streams and human health. For forestry; it damages the trees and soil, it goes into and dissolves nutrients. Acid Rain ruins the growth process of trees. For lakes/water & streams, acid goes into water systems and damages the water, very harmful during downpours and snow melts. It gives lakes episodic acidification and kills aquatic life. For human health, when acidic dust particles are inhaled; it worsens or causes asthma and bronchitis.
"episodic acidification" : when streams, lakes, and the ground have a higher pH level than they normally do..
The damage that is done to the soil makes it hard for the trees to grow. The young trees cannot survive the soil conditions. Lakes & streams have been affected by the runoff which has a powerful impact on the wildlife; therefore, it ruins their habitat and living conditions. Humans are suffering respiratory problems and are becoming ill.
Acid Rain & Climate Change
Well only that the pollutant that is used for acid rain, since it contains SO2 Sulfur Dioxide, it's also one of the greenhouse gases that contribute, SO2 is released from smoke stacks at many manufacturing plants.
Automotive Coatings
Role of Acid Rain & how it impacts Automotive Coatings
Chemistry behind the impact
Buffer is a solution which contains weak acid and the salt or weak base which is resistant to change in pH.
Chemical Formulas:

Lime is Calcium Oxide: CaO

Sulfuric Acid: H2SO4

CaO + H2SO4 -> H2O+CaSO4

CaO(s) +H2SO4 (l) -> CaSO4(s) +H2O(l)
- Plant trees
- Do not burn rubbish because it produces the most harmful gases that contribute in acid rain.
- Reduce consumption to reduce fuel and oil from industries process and utility.
- Even taking the bus is good.
- Drive less. Try to walk or bike instead.
- Commuting by bike is very cheap and healthy.
- Conserve electricity to stop burning high sulfur coal.
- Try to buy fewer mass-produced items, decreasing the demand for them and potentially reducing the factories' materials used.
Industries know the potential damage and are actively chasing the development of coatings that are more resistant to environmental fallout, including acid rain. This does not affect all vehicles or its coatings. Until the technology is resolved to protect all vehicles or until acid rain is sufficiently reduced, frequent washing, drying and covering of the vehicle are the best ways for consumers who wish to lessen acid rain damage.
The evaporation of acidic moisture is a key element to the damage, any action decrease its frequency on newly painted vehicles may reduce the problem. These steps include everyday washing followed by hand drying, covering the vehicle during precipitation days, and use of one of the protective coatings currently that claims to protect the original finish.
Acid rain & everyday activities
The main chemical causes of acid rain are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Most sulfur dioxide comes from power plants that contains coal as their fuel and most nitrogen oxide is from cars.
If we drive less and rely on green energy, we get less acid rain.
Sulfur dioxide SO2 combines with water in the air to form H2SO4. Sulfurous acid oxidizes in the presence of atmospheric water to form sulfuric acid.
- SO2 is MOST responsible for acid rain.
- Dilute sulfuric acid is the culprit in acid rain.

Instead of transporting from one place to the other in a car, truck or van; better to walk to the destination.
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