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Transcript of Memory
False Memory Activity
door, glass, shade, ledge
view, sash, screen, shutter
True or False?
Amnesia makes one unable to remember ones identity?
Knowledge through two types of Memory
I was there, I saw it!
Memory and intuition
The Role of Forgetting
Memory Expert Elizabeth Loftus "mechanism to erasing the tape of our memory"
Unexpected objects usually grab attention
A confident eyewitness should be sufficient to convict a defendant on criminal charges
Memory works like a video camera
Survey in 2009
83% - Amnesia = can't remember identity
78% - Unexpected objects do grab attention
55% - Memory can be enhanced through hypnosis
37% - Thinks confident eyewiteness = sufficient
48% - Memory is permanent
63% - Memory works like a video camera
Learning in school
Recall of events from the past
Knowledge of skills
Encoded Information that won't be consciously recall
Perception of the original event—in which information is encoded, laid down, or entered into a person's memory system.
This is when aperson recalls stored information.
Period of time that passes between the event and the eventual recollection of a particular piece of information.
Three Stages of Memory
Take out your cell phones.
Pick one phone number from your contact list.
Write it down *without the dashes* on the index card in front of you.
Switch with someone else.
In a couple minutes we're going to ask you to recall the new phone number you were given.
An account given by people of an event they have witnessed.
Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information. However, research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors:
Anxiety / Stress
The Common Biases
The suspicions that a person has that ends being correct. Leading to the Realization that is was correct all along. (Confirmation bias)
remember the past to correlate the your present self.
more readily available, the more likely something will happen.
Controlling what you remember
Leave behind clutter and to retain memories that are more important.
Decay of memory does not affect the vividness
Correlation with direct emotional experience
Intervention to reduce the negative memories
Children with negative emotional memories
Role trauma plays in political perceptions
Personal Testimony and the Shared Record
Shared Memory & Knowledge
Every area of knowledge is largely comprised of knowledge from the past...
"My people's memory reaches to the beginning of all things....."
In order to know one thing
You'll have to base it off another thing
And the connection from that thing to this thing
Will bring you a whole knew thing
And together those working parts create knew knowledge and new memories
If we didn't have legends we wouldn't have anyone to teach our past.
Just because certain events have not happened to you, it does not mean they haven't happened at all.
Part of who we are is our history and memories
We are the result of actions made in the past, and together we create our future.
Because of this it's important to note that memory is one of the most meaningful tributes we can pay to events that have happened in history.
We have to honor our past as we learn from it.
Personal Testimony- event never happened, silent , or dead.
Shared record- Many accounts of people witnessing same event, collaborate and listen to gain a more extensive record.
Personal memory may have flaws but also give us a greater understanding of the experience
The Shared Record comes from the voices of the individuals
Collective memory and History
Collective memory= Collective Indentity
Who gets to decide the "Who we were" and "Who we are "
Shaped Culturally and Politically
The sense of a group identity with respect to a collective story is a social and political issue
But when groups with a different identity have experienced an event, how will their collective story be compared to the others....
Memory: a TOK way of knowing
Memory is a constructive, dynamic, and selective process...
Interactions of Memory
Memory does not operate on its own...
As we build & question our knowledge..
Be cautious enough to remember our memories' limits, but don't neglect to appreciate the fine role of memory in our lives.
Aim for objectivity
Try to confirm memories with other memories.
Seek out many forms of evidence that would corroborate or revise our versions of the past.
Write our upcoming homework in our calendar so we wont forget it...
Take the photographs....
Keep the Keepsakes...
and enjoy them.
Works Cited Page
Our TOK Book (Ch. 6 -Memory)
Eyewitness Testimony Video
Now on the back of the index card write down the new phone number.
Anybody get it?
How'd you remember it?
Did any of you try to "chunk" it?
Chunking - the process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units.
If you take the phone number and write it all the way out, your mind tries to remember the entirety of it.
But if you group it into smaller sections, it's easier for your brain to retain and recall it.
Ex: 123456789 not 123-456-789
New Jersey Judge