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The Crusades, the Plague, and the End of the Middle Ages

History 7
by

Lori Ornelas

on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of The Crusades, the Plague, and the End of the Middle Ages

The Crusades, the Plague, & the End of the Middle Ages The Call to Arms The End of the Dark Ages & Feudalism As we have read, the Church enjoyed tremendous authority in Medieval Europe. Saladin & Richard the Lion-Hearted The Effects of the Crusades The Black Death So, when, in response to the Muslim Turk takeover of Jerusalem in 1071 and their attack on the Byzantine Empire in 1096, the Pope in Rome called for a Crusade to the Holy Land, 1000's of lords & knights responded The First Crusade AD 1096-1099 In fact, the lords & knights were more than eager. The feudal system had been slightly too effective. Having warded off most outside threats and providing peace & stability, there was very little for "Those Who Fight" to do. Success on the battlefield was also a way to gain power & reward, so too many we happy to "pick a fight". Three more crusades were undertaken in the name of Christendom - with varying degrees of success... King John & The Magna Carta Disney's Portrayal of the King Holy Warriors Okay, one more... ;) On a lighter note... The Bubonic Plague, more commonly known as "The Black Death", was brought to Europe from Central Asia aboard trading vessels (the disease was carried by fleas on black rats). While outbreaks occurred throughout the Middle Ages, the worst (and most well-documented) pandemic devastated Eurasia in the mid-1300's. It came to England in 1348. Symptoms included fever, open sores, and swollen glands. The sores started out red, but eventually turned dark purple - giving rise to the name "Black Death". If someone got sick, they were usually dead in a couple of days! In the end 1/3 of the population of Europe died from this plague - in some areas 1/2 of the people ended up buried in mass graves. A colder winter and the emergence of the brown rat finally stopped it in 1350. Doctors wore these strange outfits & masks to try to protect themselves from the plague. No one really knew how it was spread, but some thought that the foul odor of the dead & dying was the cause. Doctors would stuff these masks with pungent herbs to keep the disease at bay... Knowledge from the Middle East The Hundred Year's War (1337-1453 The Rise of the Merchant Class The Value of Labor & Mobility So, what do you think - were the Middle Ages in Europe really a period of ignorance & stagnation? Is the term "Dark Ages" really appropriate?

Create a chart providing evidence for & against... The Birth of Modern Governance
(Common Law, Parliament, Habeas Corpus) How about a little song? While the Crusades failed in their intended purpose (Jerusalem remained under the control of Muslim forces), some significant consequences did result... Spread of Knowledge Opening of Trade & Rise of the Merchant Class Persecution of Jews Revival of Towns & Trade Cities In a way, the Crusades continued in Spain with the Spanish Inquisition & Reconquista. In 1492, King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella were successful in driving the Islamic Empire off of the peninsula. After the Sesond Crusade, in which the Muslim forces defeated the Christians in Damascus, the Islamic leadership fell into disarray. However, in 1187, a devout Muslim named Saladin eventually managed to reunite his side, and consolidate power. In response to Saladin's successes, the pope called for a third Crusade. The King of England, Richard the Lion-Hearted, heeded the call. Both leaders and their men fought courageously, but reached a stalemate - the Crusaders had regained some of the Holy Land, but Saladin's forces maintained control of Jerusalem. The Truce (1192)
- Jerusalem remained under Muslim control
- Christian pilgrims would be allowed to travel
to visit the city
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