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Copy of Gender Roles: How it Influences Human Development

By: Bridgette Townsend

Bridgette Townsend

on 15 September 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Gender Roles: How it Influences Human Development

Gender Roles: How It Influences Human Development (www.cutenewbaby.com, 2012) When are Gender Roles Adopted? Gender roles are adopted during the early
childhood stage(Age 2).
Stereotypes are developed at age four.
Traits are defined at age six(Bee &Boyde, 2010). As children grow to become adolescence, they began to develop their own attitudes and search for their identity.
Their bodies began to change as they experience puberty.
"Unlike young children,adolescents understand that sex roles are social conventions, so their attitudes toward them are very flexible. And by the mid-teens most adolescents have largely abandoned the automatic assumption that whatever their own gender does is better or preferable"(Bee & Boyde, 2010). What observable behaviors might indicate changes in gender identity? Cross -dressing would be one change that may occur.
Lack of same-sex friends
personal perceptions on the roles of male and female
Cross sex play preferences during the early childhood stage. He References Bee, H. & Byde, D. (2010) The Developing Child. 12th Ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon " roles adopted during childhood normally continue into adulthood. At home, people have certain presumptions about decision-making, child-rearing practices, financial responsibilities, and so forth. At work, people also have presumptions about power, the division of labor, and organizational structures. None of this is meant to imply that gender roles, in and of themselves, are good or bad; they merely exist"(Cliff Notes, 2012). Jennifer G.&, M. H. (2009, June). The influence of gender-role socialization, media use and sports participation on perceptions of gender-appropriate sports.(Report). Retrieved September 13, 2012, from Hi Beam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-199684545.html How Children Respond to Gender Roles Gender Indentity Stage GenderStabiity
Age 4- Children understand that gender is constant . Gender Constancy
Age 5- Children understand that gender remains permanent
even when clothing and hair styles are changed We learned: The stages that children experience when adopting gender roles.
Children develop gender role perceptions by observations of the environment around them. What Influences Shape Perceptions of Gender Roles? media
books Facts from Research "Bandura's social cognitive theory is a key in understanding the factors in socialization. He argues that behavior, environmental events, and cognitive factors operate to shape attitudes and action. Individuals ponder action and its outcome, projecting consequences and adjusting accordingly. Thus, action is not a result of "imprinted histories" as much as it is a result of "cognized futures" (Bandura, 1986, p. 19). Bandura emphasizes the role of media in social learning, so much that, he argues, television influence has "dethroned" the primacy of interpersonal experience. As a consequence, life models the media"(Hardin & Greer, 2009).

"The research revealed that television portrayed more male figures than female, and furthermore depicted males in a more varied range of occupations and activities than their female counterparts, who typically were depicted as being content with domestic settings while working in traditional female occupational specialties. If this doesn't affect a child's perceptions of gender roles I don't know what does.

In as much as children spend a lot of their time watching television and tend to imitate what they see, it seems logical to assume that the perceptions of gender roles can be at least influenced in part by the type of programming that is beamed into our living rooms. Further more, it is entirely plausible that gender role development is impacted by the imitated behavior of children of what they see on television"("Search Your Love, 2009-2012). (images.searchyahoo.com) Parental Influence on Perceptions of Gender Roles Teachers' Impact on Gender Role Perceptions Infany- 9-12 Months view males and females as different faces.

Early Childhood(2-3 Yrs) can correctly identify a person's sex. Teachers assign gender specific assignments and tend to give more attention to a specific gender.

As a result of this behavior, teachers reinforce stereotypes and encourage inequality in learning.
However, teachers are also capable of shaping the character of students. How Might Gender Identity Change from Early Childhood to Adolescence? A child's earliest exposure to what it means to be male or female comes from parents (Lauer & Lauer, 1994; Santrock, 1994; Kaplan, 1991). From the time their children are babies, parents treat sons and daughters differently, dressing infants in gender specific colors, giving gender differentiated toys, and expecting different behavior from boys and girls (Thorne, 1993). One study indicates that parents have differential expectations of sons and daughters as early as 24 hours after birth (Rubin, Provenzano, & Luria, 1974).

Children internalize parental messages regarding gender at an early age, with awareness of adult sex role differences being found in two-year-old children (Weinraub, Clemens, Sachloff, Ethridge, Gracely, & Myers, 1984). One study found that children at two and a half years of age use gender stereotypes in negotiating their world and are likely to generalize gender stereotypes to a variety of activities, objects, and occupations (Fagot, Leinbach, & O'Boyle, 1992; Cowan & Hoffman, 1986). Children even deny the reality of what they are seeing when it doesn't conform to their gender expectations (i.e., a child whose mother is a doctor stating that only men are doctors) (Sheldon, 1990).
"A potential resource for influencing young children's
thinking regarding gender roles is the classroom
use of children's literature. Reading books and engaging
in classroom activities that do not stereotype roles and
occupations by gender, may challenge young children's
gender role thinking"(Trepanier-Street & Romatowski, 1999, p. 155).

Fairy tales such as" Cinderella " and "The Princess and the Frog" clearly sends messages to chidren about the social behavior norms for a male and female. How Do books Shape the Perception of Gender Roles? Romatowski, M. L.-S. (1999). The Influence of Children's Literature on Gender Role. Early Childhood Education Journal, 155-159. Witt, S. D. (1997). Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles. Retrieved September 13, 2012, from Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles: http://gozips.uakron.edu/~susan8/PARINF.HTM CliffsNotes.com. Gender Roles. 13 Sep 2012
<http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26895.html>. Gender roles are developed from one's physical environment.
Gender roles are developed when children understand the behaviors that being a girl or boy consist of. How Are Gender Roles Developed? (www.cutenewbaby.com, 2012) Parental Influences on the Perception of Gender Roles
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