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Transcript of Smart Grid
system Challenges facing the Smart Grid Time The Smart Grid past New Infrastructure High Temperature Superconductors Pearl Street Station Founded by Thomas Edison
Powered 1 square mile of NYC
Used 6 giant dynamos to produce 600 KW of DC power Transmitting power over longer distances requires the ability to increase or decrease voltage as needed. DC was ill suited for this!
Then Nikola Tesla invented the AC generator... AC power is most commonly used nowadays; transmitted at voltages of 100 kV or higher The Power Grid Today Transmission Logistics Problems facing the Grid Limits & inefficiencies Most lines and systems have been around for years and need to be replaced
Increasing strain as U.S. power consumption increases
Demand concentrated on East/West coasts and in large cities, far away from power plants
Renewable power supply will be more reliable
HTS cables will enable power to be transmitted without losses U.S. Electricity Statistics (2010) 3 main power grids (as compared to 4000 smaller ones at beginning of 20th century)
10,000 power plants; 2.5 billion megawatt hours of electricity produced Attains zero resistance at very low temperatures
Record is 133K (-140C or -220F)
Could be used in cables and voltage transformers with zero dissipation losses
Cryogenic systems costly and require much energy; R&D still needed to find materials that are more economical and will work at higher temperatures References http://www.asme.org/about-asme/history/landmarks/topics-a-l/electric-power-production-steam/-48-edison--jumbo--engine-driver-dynamo-(1882)
Integrating Renewable Electricity on the Grid: A report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs, page 24, figure 11
Integrating Renewable Electricity on the Grid: A report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs, page 23, figure 10
DiSavino, S., & Bentley, A. (n.d.). U.S. Smart Grid to cost billions, save trillions | Reuters. Business & Financial News.
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/images/ac_transformers-changes_voltage.gif Will be able to monitor the grid, draw and distribute power intelligently, and prevent voltage oscillations that can cause blackouts
Ultimate goal is the "self-healing grid," which will be able to detect problems and correct them automatically Grid will "interact" with the cars to charge when demand is lowest or to provide backup power during emergencies
Otherwise, electric cars would draw 553 Million KW from the grid if all plugged in at once!
More charging stations for electric cars BLACKOUTS Blackout began in Ohio due to an improperly trimmed tree
Bug in the software that monitored the grid prevented operators from knowing about the blackout; power was not rerouted until it was too late
Blackouts soon spread throughout the NE US and Canada, lasting for nearly 2 weeks and costing 6-10 billion dollars.
Prompted a push for national power grid standards Power dissipated via heat during transmission is P = IV=I^2*R
Currently, power is transmitted using high voltages to minimize heat losses
~7% of US electricity lost via transmission energy saved =
260,000 Million KWH/year Energy savings: Implications and Conclusions Cybersecurity Cannot be completed instantaneously, but over a longer period of time in smaller chunks Public Policy Smart grid components need consumer engagement and acceptance to facilitate implementation IT components of the grid need to be made secure Economics Estimated investment of up to $476 billion Aging infrastructure Global Smart Grid Federation founded in April 2010 U.S: $4.3 billion | China: $3.2 billion | E.U: $1.4 billion 2012 Smart Grid Investments Conclusions Projected annual reduction of 60-211 million metric tons of CO2 emissions by 2030 Key technologies SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system provides a framework for monitoring and controlling the grid
Phasor Measurement Units offer a dynamic view of the grid
Smart Meters allow both consumers and utilities to monitor how electricity is used On average, blackouts and brownouts cost roughly $100 billion in U.S. productivity annually August 14, 2003 Need a new solution! Though smart grid implementation still has a long way to go, the long-term investments will be worth it in terms of reliability, security and energy savings. Technological Limits Need more R&D