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Teaching Grammar: The PACE Model and Following the Garden Path
Transcript of Teaching Grammar: The PACE Model and Following the Garden Path
The PACE Model
Following the Garden Path Should it be the primary focus of our lessons? Essential Questions:
Is grammar important? How do personal beliefs
influence grammar instruction?
Brandl, Tasks 1 & 2 Explicit Implicit Approaches to Teaching Grammar Underlying Principles:
(1) Linguistic elements need a context to gain meaning Guided Participation / Co-Construction What is the role of grammar in the communicative classroom? How do we teach grammar and keep our communicative, meaningful contexts? 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Rules then practice
Teacher = knowledge
Students = passive
Lack of motivation,
No focus on form
Learners hypothesize language rules and structures
Most learners cannot induce rules without guidance Lesson Examination What are the major deficiences of each approach? Do they consider...
The role of the teacher as faciliator?
The role of the learner as collaborator with unique background experiences?
Learning as dynamic, social process that happens in & out of the classroom? How can we reimagine grammar teaching? (2) Students must experience the whole to analyze and understand the parts
"bottom-up" approaches focus on small bits of language: lack of connection = language for memorization, not communication (3) Authentic materials, culture, and content-based instruction are essential to the FL classroom Adair-Hauck & Donato (2002) (4) "the story or text highlights the functional significance of the grammatical structure" (p. 270) The PACE Model Presentation Attention Co-construction Extension Choosing your Presentation A wonderful place to integrate culturally relevant & authentic materials!! To consider: your overall context, relevancy for students, connection to materials How will you provide support and scaffolding for students? The Story-Based Approach (1) time and setting
(2) characters with a personality
(3) a major problem
(4) attempts to solve the
problem, critical point
(5) quick resolution & ending McWilliams (1993), as cited in Adair-Hauck & Donato (2002) 3-5
minutes 2 underlying mechanisms at work during output:
Overgeneralization of target language rule
ex. Ma actrice préférée vs. Mon actrice préférée
Language transfer errors
ex. Anne adore moi vs. Anne m'adore The Garden Path Strategy for Corrections Major principles:
Inducing these types of grammar errors Immediate feedback and correction Controlled interaction surrounding error Minimizing opportunities for fossilization Must maintain atmosphere of acceptance and collaboration! (humor can be useful) Make contrast very clear (visual representation is key) Important principles to keep in mind:
(1) Focus on one grammar structure at a time
(2) Keep meaning & context in focus
(3) Integrate oral & written input and output
(4) The learner needs to be actively engaged
(5) Consider learner processing strategies The Attention &
Co-Construction Phases (6) Remember that students NEED the collaborative co-construction phase with you! Other considerations
cognitive development stages
field-dependent learners: seeing > feeling
field-independent learners: feeling > seeing Processing Instruction
(Lesson Sample 3, pp. 120-121) Self-instruction / Preparation Maintain lesson progression and flow The Extension Phase Contextualization should continue throughout Declarative to procedural knowledge = using language for communication Provide a variety of meaningful, relevant communicative activities