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Inventions Timeline

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Luke Harris

on 1 March 2013

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Transcript of Inventions Timeline

Introduction Conclusion Communication Inventions in the 20th Century 1920s 1950s 1970s 1980s 2000s The Radio The Inventor There has always been a dispute over who REALLY invented the radio. A man named Guglielmo Marconi claimed it was his, but the true inventor of the radio was Nikola Tesla. Born on July 10, 1856 in Smijlan, Croatia, Nikola Tesla was fascinated by energy from a young age. In 1883, Tesla invented the first induction motor, which is "used throughout the world in industry and household appliances" today (Vujovic). Tesla also developed alternating current because "the secret, he felt, lay in the use of alternating current, because to him all energies were cyclic" (Vujovic). He developed alternating current, which shapes our world today, and, in 1895, he designed the first hydroelectric power plant. Most pertinently to the radio, however, Tesla invented the Tesla coil in 1891, which is used today in all radio and television sets.
Hello, and welcome to our Prezi presentation on the communication inventions of the 20th and early 21st centuries.

This timeline serves as an opportunity to learn about the development and evolution of communication throughout the decades. Each decade contains information about a specific invention of the time which revolutionized communication. The goal of this project is to explore the effects which inventions have had on the ways in which people communicate and on society as a whole.

Feel free to browse through the presentation to learn more about an invention which revolutionized communication during that time. We hope you enjoy the presentation. Credits The Sony Walkman In February 2005, Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim forever changed the way in which people communicate. All three men were employees at PayPal, which is an extension of eBay and lived in California. These men are also the original creators of YouTube. They registered for the website in February 2005 with the intention of simply using their website to share their home videos and allow others to do so as well. None of the men had any idea of the impact that their one website would have. In fact, these three men originally began using their website on a limited “beta” basis in May 2005 (Hosch, 2013). A website which has been released on a limited beta basis means that the website may be working out several glitches or viruses. Limited beta testing only allows a limited number of people to access the website (NetLingo, 2013). By Tommy Byrne The television, one of the most valued sources of communication originally started with a simple filmed movement. On June 6, 1894 inventor Charles Francis Jenkins changed cultural history by projecting a filmed motion picture. He moved pictures by reeling film and using electrical light. It was "the first moving picture exhibition in the world" (Runyon 2013). Shortly after that, in 1925, John Logie Baird, a Scottish man living in England at the time was recognized as the first to demonstrate an operational television. With his television, one could see moving images which were delivered by an electrical system. While John Logie Baird was creating his television, Philo Farnsworth was also working on something similar in America. Philo was born on August 19th, 1906 on Indian Creek in Beaver County, Utah. His parents expected him to become violinist but his love for electricity drew him to different experiments. At the young age of 12, he built an electric motor and produced the first electric washing machine his family had ever owned (Bellis). In 1927, he was the first to transmit a television image of a dollar sign, comprised of 60 different horizontal lines. While doing this, he developed the dissector tube, the basis of all current electronic televisions (Bellis). Although many contributed to the invention of the television in earlier years, it really became popularized during the 1950s. The 1950s became known as the “Golden Age of Television” because there were approximately 6,000,000 televisions existing in the US (Elert 2007). The television was easily affordable due to the post-war economic boom, and It was during this time period that many were unstoppably leaving the radio for the television. Now instead of just hearing information, you could also see it. The television not only was used for our entertainment but it played a huge role in communication. The tv really brought the society together. The television had news and also showed ads. Businessmen had finally found a place that they could use as a market for their products. In 1952 television news was able to broadcast Presidential Conventions for the first time ever (Ganzel 2007). For the first time ever, the whole country was able to watch the same programs whether it be sports, politics, news or soap operas. The television united Americans as one. TV signals that could reach into the most remote corners of the U.S. broke down the last vestiges of isolation in rural America (Ganzel 2007). The exposure to new regions made migration and travel very appealing to those who lived out in the country. Not only did the television have a large impact on American society in the 1950’s, but this invention also contributed greatly to our modern communication age. The television has become a way of life in America, almost to the point where it is an obsession. Nowadays, the television allows for us to instantaneously know what is going on around us. It keeps us connecting with other countries and allows us to find out current events, sports and politics. The television has also contributed to our modern communication age because it is a market. Viewers can learn about new products and marketers can sell their goods. Since so many people have televisions, it is an easy way to reach everyone at once. Overall, the television is truly beneficial to communication because it allows for us to see and hear what is going on. The Television The Compact Disc Through out his life, James Russell was always interested in audio. He loved his vinyl phonograph records and his cassette player. James envisioned an easier way to record and playback audio files. He also wanted this new product to last forever. James left GE and became Senior Scientist and the newly established Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute (Inventor of the Week). Here he was given free reign to experiment whatever he liked. After years of research, planning, and testing, in 1965, James Russell finished creating and patenting the first compact disc. Born in Bremerton, Washington in 1931. From the very start of his childhood, people knew James Russell was a genius. At age 6, he invented a remote control battleship. He went on to graduate with a Bachelors Degree in Physics. Soon after his graduation he worked for General Electric where he partook in numerous experimental projects. He also invented the first electron beam welder which allowed for faster and more precise cuts (Inventor of the Week). This invention didn't impact the world as much as his next one: the compact disc. The Sony Walkman is a compact cassette so technically there is nobody who can be considered the inventor of "The Walkman." Compact Cassette At the Berlin Radio show in August of 1963, Phillips Electronics came with their own prototype of the cassette. The prototype was a huge hit, because it was one quarter of the size of any previous cassette. Philips also added a versatile battery so it could be portable. Norio Ohga, the Executive Deputy President for Sony was one the people to be interested with the compact cassette. Ohga was smart enough to use blackmail while in their contract agreement. Philips had a competitor trying to sign a contract with Sony for a similar cassette. To get Philips to waive royalties so Sony didn't have to give part of their profits to them, Uhga reminded the head of Philips that they would choose their competitor's cassette. Floppy Disk 1940s Airmail Airplanes had taken huge leaps and bounds since its invention on December 17th, 1903. As the airplane progressed and was able to carry more cargo, the U.S government had decided they could take on an all new communication project. On May 14th, 1918 with the help of $100,000 from Congress the first airmail flight was completed. (Hofstra.Edu. 1998)

Airmail was not a totally new concept, in 1870 hot air balloons in Paris were sent with mail, but were inaccurate leading to the halt of the airmail concept.(Airmail Pioneers, N/A) The First Sony Walkman The CD has brought the transportation of information to a whole new level in the modern age. CD's can be used to save documents, songs, movies, programs and basically and type of computer file. This allows for files to be transported from place to place. Without the CD, we would still be using floppy discs and worrying about getting them jammed in out computers. The computer goes hand in hand with the CD as many programs require a CD to download them. The CD was a revolutionary breakthrough and the world would not be where it is today without it. Airmail was a concept invented when airplanes became more stable and had significant progress from when they were first invented. This concept was first born as a small network of airports started to arrive. This network of airmail travel started out only with routes from Washington, D.C to New York with a refueling stop in Philadelphia. This route was the birth of conventional airmail, as more airports started to arise.

The only problem was that this network was still limited at best, and was heavily subsidized by the government because of its cost. Airmail was not readily available to the average person and had no real impact, but that would all change when World War Two came into play.(CharlesLindbergh,N/A) The compact disc impacted society tremendously. It expanded the music industry the most though. When vinyl records came out they were an instant hit, but there was one problem: they didn't last long. Records were easy to damage which caused households to continuously purchase more. With the creation of the CD, people bought the same songs/albums they had on their records which increases profits for artists and recording companies (Newman). More people started to listen to music and were influenced by the music of the time. The CD impacted the communication between the artist and the listener. Inventing the Radio The invention of the radio began with James Clerk Maxwell, who developed the first radio wave theorem in 1864, mathematically proving that if electricity was sent from a transmitter, "there would be effect or passage of electrical current due to 'some sort of waves that move at the speed of light', in which the electromagnetic energy would travel" (Farhana et al). A man named Heinrich Hertz then was able to physically prove Maxwell's theory by generating a current and then receiving it with a a coil that had a small gap in it. This eventually evolved into amateur "wireless telegraphy", which was "Morse code communications between stations difficult or impossible to connect with wires, such as ships at sea" (Volti). These devices consisted of a power source, a transmitter, an interrupter to vary the message, induction coils, and capacitors to send the energy. At this point, radio was little more than wireless telegraphy, but the efforts of inventors such as Lee deForest, Reginald Fessenden, and Ernst Alexanderson resulted in the replacement of the spark system by one of waves, which could carry full messages. Then Guglielmo Marconi revolutionized the radio some more by adding a coherer, a tube filled with iron fillings, in order to detect wireless signals more efficiently, In 1967, IBM assigned a team led by David L Noble to create a cheap and reliable system to load microcode into the System/370 mainframes. This allowed IBM’s first computer system to record memory using read/write semiconductor for microcode.

Not much is known about David L Noble, the man who was credited with the team design and fabrication of the first floppy disc. The IBM Direct Access Storage Product Manager Alan Shugart assigned him the job at their San Jose, California storage development center. He led a small team of engineers to develop a system for loading instructions and installing software updates into mainframe computers.

The floppy disk was created with a circular flexible Mylar disk encased with magnetic material. This whole disk was then inserted into a disk drive mechanism and spun on a spindle internally. Soon after, they covered the disk in a plastic shield to prevent dirt and debris from entering. They were also fitted with a dust wiping element that was very innovative for the time. This made them easy and practical to store. IBM started selling them in 1971 and got a patent for it in 1972. This technology held much more memory than the previous technology of punching cards. The floppy disk revolutionized communications because for the first time ever, the average person could share bigger and more numerous files with others. It became so universal that almost everyone had a floppy disk drive. This provided a feeling of connection, because computer content was so widespread as a result of this new technology. The floppy disk has not continued its once great legacy due to new technologies and digital file sharing. New forms of storage have been invented and the floppy disk has taken its spot up on the shelf. This piece of American history demonstrates the advancements in communication as a whole. This video shows how the Walkman works. A Douglas C-54 Skymaster used to transport U.S Military Personnel during World War Two, converted into an Airmail Plane. By Sachin Khadse As World War Two came to a close there were thousands of planes left over from mass-production, and landing strips were built everywhere. These left over planes and airfields set up airmail to have the greatest impact to communication. Airmail was able to cut mail delivery in half, increasing the speed at which letters get to their destination. Post War the surplus of planes were turned into cargo and passenger planes. This surplus of planes made it affordable for average people to send and receive airmail. Unlike before when airmail was only available to government officials and high ranking business men. The biggest impact of airmail on society was mainly the ability for the average citizen to communicate letters and documents to anyone all over the country in a reasonable amount of time. Mail by trains and vehicles at this time was slow, airmail sped up the process and society itself. The big picture of this advancement was that since during the war airfields all over the pacific sprang up, allowing The U.S to speed up communications with foreign countries. Before cargo ships were used, which could take numerous days to get to china, until the airmail network work cut that time to a half a day. Overall this invention contributed to the ability to quickly send letters and important documents through a network of airfields to ultimately connecting the country at a much faster rate. (Hofstra.Edu 1998) The model TPS-L2 was the first Sony Walkman to be sold to the public. It was a small, 14 ounce, white and blue cassette with two earphone jacks for large headphones. The man credited for designing of the original Walkman was Nobutoshi Kihara, a Japanese engineer and chairmen for Sony. Even though Kihara designed the Walkman, the main idea which outlined it was created by the co-founder of Sony, Masaru Ibuka. Just like many of the greatest ideas in history, Ibuka got the idea by being on an airplane, because he was sick of carrying the large portable cassette recorder everywhere. When he got back to work he asked Ohga to create a playback only stereo (music only), with the usage of headphones. After Ohga finished, Ibuka brought his prototype to chairman Morita and was recorded saying, "Try this. Don't you think a stereo cassette player that you can listen to while walking around is a good idea?"(Haire, 2009). After the approval of his idea, Kihara was asked to further manufacture and improve their device. Yet, despite the site’s limited access, YouTube was still receiving 33,000 views everyday. Astoundingly, by the time that YouTube was fully launched in December 2005, the site was receiving over 2 million views every day. In just a little over a month after its official launch, YouTube was being visited by more than 25 million people every day. With the popularity of YouTube, Chen, Hurley, and Karim quickly grew overwhelmed. The men had to buy more and more equipment and broadband connections. Running the website was expensive and the men became concerned that if copyrighted material was utilized, then they would be held responsible. The men made the decision to sell their website to Google in November 2006 for a total of $1.65 billion in stock (Hosch, 2013). Sony Corporation A Japanese company, which manufactures electronic products. Their multinational company is famous for creating the series of game consoles called Playstation. Here is the first YouTube video An image of the of the World Wide Web in the year 2000 A DC-3 Airplane, a surplus plane left over from WW2 that has been commissioned into passenger and cargo transport. Impact Airmail is still in use today, mainly run by companies like FedEx, which grossed 13.1 billion dollars in 2012. This industry has is mainly in effect today for people who shop online. Airmail allows for people to received next day delivery even if the product is half-way across the country. Airmail is an important piece of modern day communication because it allows us to quickly transport documents to all parts of the world at a low cost. Airmail brings the world closer even today at an all new level of efficiency.
(MarketWatch, 13) Ultimately, the ways in which people have communicated throughout the decades have been greatly influenced by the technology which is produced and is available during the time. Technological advances have increased the number of ways and contexts in which people communicate. Every advancement in the field of communication allows the world to become increasingly smaller. Communication provides opportunities to collaborate with others to advance society as a whole economically, culturally, and socially. Communication also provides a sense of community between people. Thus, the quality of communication between people directly correlates with the general advancement of society. From audio like the radio, the Walkman, and the CD, to the visual like YouTube, the World Wide Web, and the television, to the physical air mail service, the different types of interpersonal communication have shaped American society. However, in a time when communication is defined increasingly by online interactions, through (phone, e-mail, social networks, and text) it is important to remember the most essential form of human communication remains a face to face interaction. eventually extending the range of the device to many miles. The device was further improved when a physicist named Ernest Rutherford introduced a new receiver that used magnetism to detect radio waves, called the "maggie" detector. The radio was revolutionized again when Fessenden transmitted full voice and music in 1906 using alternators that would produce waves of 50,000 cycles a second in order to transmit sound. Companies then realized that the radio could be used for commercial broadcasting, entertainment, etc. and the first commercial radio station was launched in 1920 to advertise the newest Westinghouse radios. Then, in the mid-1920s, companies like Westinghouse began selling radios with loudspeakers instead of headsets, allowing families to listen to the radio shows that began populating the air waves. Radio broadcasting was about to enter the Golden Age of Radio The World Wide Web Radio had a profound impact on society in the 1920s. Firstly, it influence voters because the average citizen could now hear a candidate's views and better judge who to vote for, "giving the candidate an opportunity to carry his message directly to the people" (Bartlett). This gave candidates a chance against local newspapers that could be slandering possible candidates that were running for any form of government office. The radio also joined rural America with the rest of the bustling country. Farmers' "interest in national affairs increased", which meant that another demographic became a factor in deciding the future of America's population (Bartlett). Radio had its greatest influences rooted in entertainment, however. It gave millions of listeners daily doses of entertainment while also broadcasting advertisements for products. Radio essentially became a "social safety valve" that allowed people to relax after a day of stress (Bartlett). News could also now be spread on a national scale, so people anywhere in the country could be up to date with the latest tragedies or heroic events. Radio, in essence, connected the nation in ways that newspapers or telegraphs never could. Voices could be heard coast to coast, allowing listeners to keep up to date on the current fads, news, etc. There are several ways and reasons why YouTube has revolutionized communication. First, YouTtube is a public website. Unlike several of the other inventions of its time, YouTube provided and provides free communication. Anyone with internet access and an email can create an account and communicate using videos which are accessible to over 53 countries (YouTube, 2013). Additionally, because YouTube is so easy to operate and access, it has become a universal form of communication. People are able to share ideas, music, talents, entertainment, and information with complete strangers around the globe in the short amount of time it takes to upload a video. This form of worldwide communication allows people to reach out to people that they would have otherwise never connected with. Additionally, with the advent of smartphones, ipods, and tablets; YouTube allows for mobile communication.
YouTube has not only changed the way in which people communicate, but has also changed society as a whole. For example, YouTube has changed education. Many educators now utilize YouTube as a visual form of learning, for demonstrating difficult concepts, and students can also use YouTube on their own to learn new concepts in a variety of subjects from history, to biology, cooking, and math. Additionally, YouTube has revolutionized the advertising world. Because YouTube reaches such a broad audience, companies can target specific groups of people based on the kind of videos they watch. Finally, YouTube has changed the entertainment world. Young artists can now submit their work to the public for feedback and public critique. YouTube also allows for music and videos to spread or go viral and allows television shows and news to be easily accessible (O'Neill, 2010). Modern Society Today, virtually every household has at least one radio or television (Broadcasting, Radio and Television). Every American is connected to every other through the nation's radio networks, be it through pop music or national news. Most stations today are narrowed to a single subject, such as a genre of music, news, or talk shows, while back then many encompassed a variety of subjects. This means that listeners are able to pick and choose what they want to listen to, rather than be fettered to a specific time slot that they will have to wait for in order to listen to their favorite station. Local stations connect their communities through advertising local events. Radio can also spread a craze of a specific song. The average American can also catch up on both national and local news during their "'drive time' the hours when many commuters listen to local programs on their car radios" (Broadcasting, Radio and Television). A drawback, however, is that radio stations now also worry about funding, so commercials are everywhere on the radio. At the same time, however, this can aid the spread of products for companies. Radio basically still maintains its role as a local and national connector, although it is even more widely available thanks to inventions like the car radio and the satellite radio. Original 8"
floppy disk Newer 3" floppy disk The idea Naming Hub Shutter Housing Magnetic Disk In Japan, the United States and in the U.K the new audio cassette was called three different names. At first, it was called the "Sound-about" in the U.S, but after a proved cost increase by having three different copyright names Sony chose to call the cassette, "The Walkman," They created the name Walkman, because Sony also had a different portable cassette called the "Pressman", which the Walkman was partially based off of. Beginning Issue During the first few months of advertising, Sony suffered, because the amount of sales were not what was expected. The headphones were so hideous and so "unfashionable" that people weren't buying the Walkman, not because of the quality. Sony started to pay, celebrities and random people to walk around cities and wear the headphones. The Walkman soon became a hit after it wasn't considered hideous. Sales went from 5,000 sales to 50,000 in a few months. (Haire, 2009) Impact The Walkman impacted society, because it transformed the way people started to think and socialize while surrounded in nature. Ever since the Walkman was invented, music wasn't completely domesticated anymore. People could zone out in the middle of Time Square, NYC listening to their favorite music. Electronic "solitude", could sum up what the Walkman created, because nothing else in history allowed for people to not to socialize. Also, it didnt help that people started to enjoy getting away from reality, because almost every electronic invention since the Walkman has made electronic solitude a worse of a problem. In 1990 a British computer scientist named Tim Berners-Lee was working at a physics laboratory in Switzerland. He worked for a company called CERN, which translates to the “European Laboratory for Particle Physics” (Ament 2006). Here, all of the physicists would come to the central lab in Geneva, Switzerland and record their data in their own computers. There was no way for computers to share information or data with other computers. One day Berners-Lee became annoyed with his computerized daily planner. All of the phone numbers that he saved and the documents that he wrote had been stored on different databases and there was no way to combine them (CNN 2003). Partnering up with a fellow computer scientist from Belgium, Robert Cailliau, they created one of the most essential items of society's daily lives, the World Wide Web. He channeled his frustration into inspiration and they began to write a layout for this idea. It was entitled “Information Management: A Proposal” (Greenemeier 2009). Creating a hypertext computer program that let him connect the phone numbers to his documents, the Web was established. Berners-Lee and Cailliau’s World Wide Web layout was made up of virtually three things. The first one was HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol). HTTP allowed the user to click on a link and be directed straight to that web page or document. The next part of the Web was URLs, universal resource locators. URLs help users track down and locate a specific site. The last part of the Web was the invention of HTML, which is short for hypertext markup language. HTML give users the ability embed links in a document or website. (Greenemeier 2009). HTML are the building blocks of the Internet and web pages.
Later, this simple idea expanded into an international database. He called this vision the "World Wide Web" (Sahib). When he handed out the software in the year 1991, other computer scientists instantly started building on it and tweaking it. They added images and color to create a primitive version of the Internet as we know and heavily depend on today. Berners-Lee compared the World Wide Web to a market economy, saying anyone can trade with anyone without physically having to go to a market square to do so. Also there is no center of the Web. Any computer can link to any other without having to be directed to a central connection point. After the Web was built, Berners-Lee and Cailliau wanted to spread the word. They flew around the world and met with people to discuss the idea of the Web. In 1992, there were only 26 websites on the Web. In the year 1993, CERN made the monumental decision of making the World Wide Web software free and available to everyone. It was after this decision, during the years 1994 to 2000, that the Internet saw exponential growth. This type of popularity had not been seen with any technology before. The era of Internet had begun. It altered peoples lives during the 1990s by making information available to anyone. Communication changed forever with the introduction of instant messaging in the early 1990s.
The ever so famous web browsers “Firefox” and “Internet Explorer” were created to get onto the Web. It also resulted in the unproductive activity of “web surfing”. It led to online shopping like Amazon, in 1994, and eBay, in 1995. Because of the Web creation users put the prefix “http://www.” in front of the web address they are trying to find. The World Wide Web led to the creation of the widely used search engine, “Google”, in 1998 (CNN 2003). Google currently receives approximately 5 billion searches a day.

The creation of the Web and Google has helped society communicate better. With the unfathomable amount of information being published and viewed through the Web and Google every second, the public way to learn has changed. Instead of books and encyclopedias, the common man today and in the 1990s would refer to the World Wide Web for an answer. Without the World Wide Web simply things we do in our life today, would not be possible, like checking the weather on a smartphone or sharing a Google Document with a peer. The World Wide Web can be considered one of the most important inventions in history. 1990s Modern Impact Music has change so unbelievably since the Walkman was first invented. People perception on music changed, because it was easier to get access to. Genres of music changed as well, because what you listened to show what your personality is like. In that sense music became part of everyone lives. Some ways, music tells the biggest stories, inspires the most people and brings communities together. One example of how a song can inspire and unite the world is "Gangnam Style". This is a perfect example for uniting communities, or the world in this case, because with a topic like news, people have the right to deny what they don't want to hear. "Gangam Style" was heard in almost every country around the world and was loved. Music can now be considered one of the most effective forms of communication, because it who the person is, everyone hears the same words. MIT.edu. (1999, December). Inventor of the

Week: Archive. Inventor of the Week: Archive.

Retrieved February 27, 2013, from

http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/russell.html 20’s Tomas: The Radio
30’s Karla: FM Radio
40’s Cody: Airmail
50’s Perri: Television
60’s Sachin: CD
70’s Luke: Floppy disc
80’s Tommy: Sony Walkman
90’s Charmi: World Wide Web
2000’s Christine: YouTube References

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Spirit of St. Louis 2 Project. (2007). Lindbergh: U.S. Air Mail Service Pioneer. Charles Lindbergh. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from http://www.charleslindbergh.com/airmail/ The invention of the radio brought America together as a big family. As, mentioned before, this invention was during the great depression. The radio was free to listen to and it gave families a chance to distract themselves from their everyday struggles. People shared favorite stations and would tell each other about them, shared jokes, and it was also a way to communicate with others in case of a menace. The radio played an important role in people's lives. By the 1930's there was at least one radio and each household. Families would gather around a big console, listening to their favorite stations for hours. At first, there only was AM radio.  The am radio was good but still had some issues that need to be fixed. This included a limit to audio system,  sometimes stations would interfere with others while on, and static caused from household appliances and lighting would interfere the signal.  Edwin H. Armstrong invented the modern modulation (FM) radio transmission. This invention had to be his biggest success, the FM radio was influential and product on modern society as well.  He won many awards and held 42 patents. He is a member of the National  Inventors Hall of fame and the International Telecommunications Union's roster of great inventors. FM Radio At this time, radio was transmitted using AM, amplitude modulation which varied the amplitude of the radio waves. The use of radio via AM let the radio signal a wider reach reach to travel but had poor quality sound.  Armstrong won a patent for FM radio in 1933,  he then held is first field test to compare FM and AM radio signals for a broadcast from the top of Empire State Building.  The AM broadcast sounded static, while the FM was clear and rich of sound to listener's ears.  The quality was outstanding and many radio listeners were shocked by the difference.
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