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Chapter 6 Presentation
Transcript of Chapter 6 Presentation
Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries
Chapter VI: Earthquakes
Lesson 2: Earthquakes and Seismic Waves
Pictures and Videos
Lesson 4: Earthquake Hazards and Safety
Lesson IV : Vocabulary
Liquefaction: The process by which shaking makes loose sediment move like a liquid.
Tsunamis: Ocean waves caused by earthquakes are called seismic waves
Seismic Waves: waves of energy produced at the focus of a earthquake
Epicenter: the point on earth's surface directly above the earthquakes focus
Primary Waves: compressional waves
Secondary Waves: also known as shear waves; cause particles to vibrate perpendicular.
1.earthquake: The rupture and sudden movement of rocks along a fault.
2. elastic strain: Energy stored as a change in shape.
3. focus: The location on a fault where rupture and movement begin.
Seismograph: an instrument used to measure and record ground movement caused by seismic waves
Seismogram: tracing made by a seismograph, used to calculate the size of an earthquake and determine its location
A earthquake is the rupture and sudden movement of rocks along a fault. As elastic strain builds up, rocks change shape and stretch. When there is too much strain, faults rupture. Earthquakes start at the focus, or the point on a fault where rupture began.
Earthquakes can begin at any type of plate boundaries. In divergent plate boundaries, rocks break under tension stress, and a normal fault is formed. In convergent plate boundaries, compression stress occurs and forms a normal fault. In transform plate boundaries, shear stress occurs and forms a transform plate boundary.
Even though most earthquakes occur near plate boundaries, some earthquakes can occur far away from faults. The places that they occur are called seismic zones.
How do Earthquakes affect life on a continent?
Earthquakes are the result of plate tectonics, or shifting plates in the crust of Earth, and quakes occur when the frictional stress of gliding plate boundaries builds and causes failure at a fault line. In an earthquake, elastic strain energy is released and waves radiate, shaking the ground. Scientists can predict where major temblors might occur in a general sense, but research does not yet allow forecasts for specific locations or accurate predictions of timing. Major earthquakes, some generating tsunamis, have leveled entire cities and affected whole countries. Relatively minor earthquakes can also be induced, or caused by human activity, including extraction of minerals from Earth and the collapse of large buildings.
The different types of earthquake hazards are fires, landslides, liquefaction, and tsunamis. There are many different types of ways you can be safe from these hazards. To be safe from these hazards you can create safety kits, make plans, and determine when earthquakes or tsunamis are going to strike.
Avoiding Earthquake Hazards
You can avoid earthquake hazards in many different ways. One of the was you can do this is by determining the earthquake hazards. California scientists make strategies for land uses by determining where earthquakes are likely to occur. This can reduce damages and loss of life.
Earthquakes and Structures
Different types of structures are more resistant to earthquakes than others. Buildings with rubber and steel rods installed can help build up resistance to earthquakes.
Before an earthquake, you can be ready by having plans by having a plan and by making a safety pack. During an earthquake, you have to find a safe area to stay. After an earthquake, you have to stay calm and see if there are any water or gas leaks. You also have to be careful around rubble and glass. Stay away from beaches because there might be tsunamis.
What are Earthquakes?
Seismographs work to measure earthquakes. In a mechanical seismograph, a pen is attached to a pendulum, which is a weight. A drum holds paper in place. When the ground shakes during an earthquake, the drum moves and the pen records how much shaking is caused by the earthquake.
What can earthquakes result in?
What is released during an Earthquake?
Earthquakes occur along what?
This is a seismogram. It is the record of seismic waves. Seismologists read these lines to figure out the earthquake's size and location. The x axis shows the time of the earthquake. The first wave to arrive is the primary wave. The secondary wave comes next. The 3rd and last wave to arrive is the surface wave. Surface waves cause the most destructive earthquakes.
Mr. Lobato Science Block 4
This is a magnitude scale. It measures the strength of an earthquake with numbers between numbers 0 and 9. Each number is 10 times greater strength than the number before it. Many small earthquakes don't release anywhere close to the same amount of energy as one larger earthquake. For example it could take 1 million 4 magnitude earthquakes to release as much energy as an earthquake with 8 magnitude does. The difference between richter magnitude scales and moment magnitude scales is that richter magnitude scales can only measure earthquakes with magnitude between 3 and 7, while moment magnitude scales can measure all sizes of earthquakes.
Lesson 3: Measuring Earthquakes
Seismic waves are waves of energy produced at the focus of an earthquake. They travel outward from the epicenter, which is directly above the focus of an earthquake.
There are 3 types of waves; P waves, S waves, and surface waves. P waves move the fastest. You can use the time difference between the P and S waves to determine the location of the epicenter.
Energy builds up in earth's interior. Elastic strain has been building up in rocks and is released when an earthquake occurs. It is released as rocks breaking and sometimes moving.
The largest earthquakes happen at convergent plate boundaries. Most earthquakes occur where 2 plates meet, but some occur away from plate boundaries.
By:Jason, Makenzie, Emi, Todd, and Ryan