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World War I
Transcript of World War I
"The War to End All Wars"
So, what caused the
to go to
So after all that, why didn't
World War I
make all wars
A policy of glorifying military power and values. Countries like Britain, France and Germany all began to stockpile weapons.
Why did it lead to war?
*Countries in Europe had been spending their money building up massive militaries and weapons to compete with one another.
A system in which countries promise to trade with, support and/or protect one another. Countries in alliances don't have to be friendly - just have common goals!
Why did they lead to war?
*European countries had made promises to help each other in case they were threatened/attacked. Once the fighting started, many countries had to enter the war because of their alliances.
Strong feelings of pride in and loyalty to a nation or ethnic group, which can inspire acts of extreme violence.
Why did this lead to war?
*Many European countries viewed themselves as being the best and most powerful of all, and soon many young people believing in their own country's superiority became willing to die to prove it.
A process of stronger countries taking over and exploiting weaker countries, especially for natural resources.
How did this cause war?
*Competition for colonies, trade and trade routes (especially in Africa) created huge tensions between European countries like England and Germany.
A Spark for War:
*On June 28th 1914, a man named Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, was assassinated while visiting the town of Sarajevo, Bosnia.
Ferdinand and his wife were shot and killed by a Serbian nationalist named Gravillo Princip.
The group the nationalists belonged to, "The Black Hand", wanted Serbia to be independent from Austria-Hungary.
Question #2: What event served as a spark that ignited World War I?
Why did it cause war?
*This murder caused a domino effect of almost most every country in Europe declaring war on one another within just TWO weeks!
The Ottoman Empire
Question #10: What were the goals of Allied countries after World War I?
Great Britain, Italy and France
* The U.S. wanted world peace and improved security.
*President Wilson created "14 Points" for peace.
1-5: How do we make sure the causes of World War I don't happen again?
6-13: Lets create countries based on historical allegiances and nationalities.
14: Let's create a "League of Nations": A group that can work together to solve conflicts before they become wars.
Question #11: What did the Treaty of Versailles do?
Question #13: How did the US respond to the Treaty of Versailles?
*Even after Wilson worked on the Treaty of Versailles, people in the US were not happy with it.
"If the Treaty is not ratified by the Senate, the War will have been fought in vain, and the world will be thrown into chaos."
"If you want another war against civilization then let us go back to the conditions of 1914. If you want the possibility of sending once more our troops and navies to foreign lands, then stay out of the league."
*Congress felt the League of Nations would bind America to tightly to the rest of the world, and voted against us joining it.
Question #3: What weapons/fighting styles were used in World War I?
In the end, the U.S. rejected the Treaty, Europe struggled to rebuild, and the table was set for a future
Question #6: How did the United States get involved in World War I?
President Wilson's 1916 Presidential campaign slogan was "he kept us out of war". What changed?!
*But, once the Soviet Union left the war, the U.S. realized it wanted to help Britain and France more (because of trade ties) - and because of two aggressive actions carried out by Germany.
*The US originally viewed World War I as a "European issue", and at first declared neutrality.
Staying neutral allowed the U.s. to stay away from fighting in general - and to be able to sell war resources to both sides!
*On May 7th, 1915 a German U-boat sank a passenger ship "the Lusitania" - killing over 1,000 innocent people, and over 100 American citizens.
*A secret coded message was intercepted in 1917 proving that Germany was plotting against America by promising to help Mexico if they wanted to attack the U.S. and reclaim lost territories.
-Germany wanted the US distracted so we wouldn't enter the war, but the plan backfired!
April 2, 1917
Wilson asks Congress to declare war.
*April 6, 1917:
Congress declares war on Germany.
Question #7: How did America prepare for the war?
*To be able to fight well, America first had to solve a few issues:
*Issue 1: Paying for the war.
1) Raise Taxes
2) Sell War Bonds
*Citizens purchased war bonds to raise money for the war. Bonds are promises for the government to pay back the money loaned to them with interest. Buying bonds was seen as very patriotic and a way to help the soldiers.
*Issue 2: Feeding the soldiers.
1) Encourage less consumption
2) Urge the public to grow "Victory Gardens"
*Issue 3: Produce enough weapons and war supplies.
Solution: The War Industries Board
Technology Transforms Combat
Question #4: What was trench warfare like in WWI?
Problem 1: War Guilt Clause
Problem 3: New Boarders
Problem 4: No Oversight
Terrible diseases, like "trench foot" were common if soldiers stood in damp, unsanitary, cold conditions for too long.
Many soldiers' toes and feet were lost from infections!
*A new device for the time, the "machine gun", could fire 600 bullets per minute and kill soldiers faster than any weapon in history.
*Chemical weapons, like poison gases, were used for the very first time.
*Tanks gave troops cover when moving from one area to another and helped them fire guns from protected spaces.
*World War I was the first war in which airplanes were used as weapons.
In 1918, the Germans made one final push
to capture France at the second Battle of the Somme, but the push was ineffective due to American involvement.
Question #9: When did World War I end? What were major outcomes?
*The Americans brought renewed energy and supplies to the war that the Allies desperately needed to win!
Question #5: Why did Russia suddenly take itself out of World War I in 1917?
*Germans felt unfairly punished, and some began to blame Jews for losing the war.
A rumor started to swirl that the Jewish people had "stabbed the German people in the back."
Land was divided, often without knowing if the people of new countries would get along.
*The League of Nations was never given any real power to solve problems.
There was still no organization that could help settle disputes before they became major wars.
New technologies made a large impact on both styles of combat (fighting) and death rates:
1. War Guilt Clause
*Americans were encouraged to plant "Victory Gardens" and conserve food by having
"Meatless Mondays"and "Wheatless Wednesdays".
*The government created the War Industries Board, which took factories over and told them what supplies to produce and how much to make.
*Flamethrowers were used to clear battlefields in order to see better, and sometimes to attack enemy lines.
made this war far more deadly than any other war in human history.
*Both sides began digging large systems of trenches in the French and German countrysides to protect themselves from new and deadly weapons.
Fighting in WWI didn't just happen on land:
Fighting also occurred
in the sky,
...and at sea!
submarines called "U-Boats" to attack enemy ships.
In response to German weaponry, Allies used a "convoy system" to protect their ships by having planes fly over and protect them.
2. Military Restrictions
3. Territorial Changes
4. The League of Nations
Question #12: What were problems with the Treaty of Versailles?
*As part of a "War Guilt Clause" Germany had to accept 100% of the blame for the war.
*Germany had to also pay billions of dollars in reparations to countries hurt by the war.
-France demanded a buffer zone between themselves and Germany.
*Germany also had to reduce its military to just 100,000 troops - leaving it weak, vulnerable and afraid.
Allied countries took whatever land they wanted and drew new European borders at will.
*Wilson's dream, a "League of Nations", was created to provide security to its members.
Problem 2: Reparations
*Paying for the war killed the German economy.
German money became worthless, and German citizens saw their savings become worthless, giving rise to even more anger.
*European countries were more concerned with making sure Germany was punished, and could never fight in a war again.
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
Why do people fight? Come up with as many reasons for fighting as you can.
Benefits and Detriments of Trench Warfare
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
What do you think was the biggest cause of World War I?
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
Describe one of problems with the Treaty of Versailles.
World War I
The Russian Revolution:
Question #1: What were the MAIN causes of World War I?
(Leave room and come back to answer this AFTER answering Question #1)
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife Sophie, on June 28th, 1914.
*Once American soldiers entered the war they were treated as equals by the British and French, and the tides rapidly turned in favor of the Allies.
Discuss with a partner: Why do you think these new weapons made fighting/killing less personable than ever before?
-Trenches provided protection from machine guns and tanks.
-Trenches were open to gas attacks and bombs.
-Trenches were dirty, cold and wet - many soldiers got diseases from staying in them for too long.
-Trenches were psychologically (mentally) damaging - due to boredom and fear.
-Trenches made it hard to win battles, and for the war to advance.
*Poison gases would blister and burn the inside of soldiers' lungs and cause them to bleed to death.
Effects of Chemical Weapons:
Manfred von Richthofen, known as the "Red Baron" was the most famous ace (an "ace" is what pilots were called) for having shot down at least 80 enemy planes on behalf of the German army.
*The war had become very unpopular in Russia. Millions of young men had died, the government was corrupt, and peasants were starving to death.
Return of Lenin
*In October of 1917 Vladimir Lenin and his Communist followers (called the Bolsheviks) took over Russia's capital.
Russia Leaves the war
*Once the Communists took over Russia's government, they declared themselves to be the "Soviet Union" or "USSR" and signed a peace treaty with Germany to leave the war.
A man named Vladimir Lenin, who had been exiled from Russia for his extreme beliefs, returned (with the help of Germany) to fuel growing protests.
*2.) The Zimmerman Telegram:
*1.) The Sinking of the Lusitania:
The Germans continued to use submarines on passenger ships for years - angering many countries.
Question #8: How did the war change once Americans arrived?
American soldiers had the nickname of doughboys, because the brass buttons on their uniforms looked like flower dumplings, and the term eventually became used in various advertising campaigns!
Never before had the entire country been involved in a war effort like this!
*The government also passed laws like the Espionage Act and Sedition Act to limit anit-war actions and speech.
*Massive propaganda campaigns encouraged ALL Americans to contribute to the war effort in ANY way they could.
Do you believe limiting freedom of speech to suppress anti-war beliefs during wartime is right or wrong?
The First Amendment of the Constitution provides freedom of speech, but there are always limits to this right:
"The Eleventh Hour"
After the United States entered Europe in early 1918, the Central Powers could not keep up fighting for long. Many German soldiers even began to protest.
*Germany declared an "armistice" - an end to the fighting- and all major countries decided the fighting should stop at 11 a.m. on November 11th of 1918 (11/11/11/18).
*Over four years of fighting, 20-25 million people died.
*Much of France and Germany were also in total ruin!
Countries on the Allied side decided to send representatives to Paris, France - in particular, a palace named Versailles - to have peace talks.
Soon, the Treaty of Versailles was written.
Germany was shocked to find they were not even invited to the peace talks, so all decisions were made without them!
*Even after the Treaty of Versailles was written, most countries felt like nothing good had been accomplished, and that another war would be inevitable one day.
Outcome: No One Is Happy!
Discussion Question: Do you agree with any of the punishments that were given to Germany? Why or why not?
At least 5 million soldiers were missing, meaning their families never saw them again.
Discuss with a partner: Do you think the losing side of a fight or war should have a say in their own punishment?
*In 1920, Republican candidate Warren Harding is elected President on a promise of returning America to being isolationist - focusing on ourselves.
Wilson had to try and convince Congress to vote on allowing America to vote to join the League of Nations - which he had worked so hard to create.
Woodrow Wilson suffered
a serious stroke in 1919
and could not do much to try and change their minds.
-19 years old at the time of the killing.
-Had stopped to eat a sandwich outside a cafe, when he saw the Archduke after his driver had made a wrong turn and took the chance to kill him.
-Died in prison before WWI ended at the age of 23.
After the Murder of Franz Ferdinand:
1.) Austria declares war on Serbia one month after killing.
2.) Serbia then declares war on Austria.
3.) Russia (an ally of Serbia) then declares war on Austria, who then declares war back.
4.) Germany (an ally of Austria) declares war on Serbia and Russia.
5.) Germany then declares war on France (an ally of Russia) and invades Belgium to attack them.
6.) Britain (an ally of France and Russia) declares war on Germany.
What is Communism?
-Communism is a form of government thought up by a German man named Karl Marx in the late 1800s.
-Communism says workers need to take over their factories and governments, get rid of all social classes (no rich and no poor), eliminate all money, and make everything equal in society for everyone.
*In 1918, just as WWI was coming to an end, a terrible flu called the 'Spanish Influenza" spread across the entire planet and killed 20-50 million people in two years.
Many believe the flu was partially caused by the war - with how unhealthy soldiers were, and by how much people had been forced to travel.
Many who caught the flu could wake up in the morning feeling healthy, and be dead by evening.
Towns and cities across the world had to create new laws about wearing masks and keeping public places clean to keep germs from spreading!
In today's times many still worry about an illness like this spreading again.
The trenches in France were the most notorious for death, and were called the "western front".
-After World War I chemical weapons were largely banned, though some were still used in World War II.
-Today, using chemicals weapons remains highly illegal, but still occurs in places like Syria.
Discuss with a partner:
-Should certain types of weapons ever be banned in war?
-Are there some ways of killing that are worse than others?
- Russia ("aka" the Soviet Union) was the first country to ever try Communism.
-This transformation from capitalism to communism did not go very well for the Soviet Union - as millions of more of its people starved to death after farmers were forced off of their lands and no one was able to grow enough food.
-Lenin died in 1924, and Joseph Stalin become a terrible dictator who took a lot of money and murdered many people.