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World War I

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Andrew Williams

on 24 March 2017

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Transcript of World War I

Causes of World War I:
"The War to End All Wars"
So what caused the
to go to
So after all that, why didn't
World War I
make all wars
A policy of glorifying military power and values. Countries like Britain, France and Germany all began to stockpile weapons.
Why did it lead to war?
This led countries to mistrust other countries. Countries were nervous of each other and anxious to use these weapons.
A system in which countries promise to trade with, support and/or protect one another. Countries in alliances don't have to be friendly - just have common goals!
Why did they lead to war?
Countries were bound to help each other in case one was threatened/attacked. Once the fighting started, many countries had to enter the war because of alliances.
Strong feelings of pride in and loyalty to a nation or ethnic group, which can inspire acts of extreme violence.
Why did this lead to war?
One place nationalism was common was in a region called the "Balkans" -a group of countries in southeastern Europe, which was controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Serbia, a country in the Balkans, wanted to be independent, and in 1914 a violent action inspired by a nationalist group is what sparks WWI.
A process of stronger countries taking over and exploiting weaker countries, especially for natural resources.
How did this cause war?
Competition for colonies, trade and trade routes (especially in Africa) created huge tensions between European countries like England and Germany.
An Assassination:
In 1914, Franz Ferdinand was the
heir to the throne of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire.
While visiting the area of Bosnia, he was shot and killed by a Serbian nationalist named Gravillo Princip.
The group the nationalists belonged to, "The Black Hand", wanted Serbia to be independent from Austria-Hungary.

"Everybody's nerves are tense. It needs only a spark to set the whole thing off."
Why did it cause war?
This "spark" caused Austria to declare war on Serbia exactly on month after the shooting on July 28th of 1914. Russia, who was Serbia's ally through the alliance system, declared war on Austria. Germany, Austria's ally, then stepped in and declared war on Russia. This domino effect caused almost most every country in Europe to declare war on one another within just TWO weeks!
Central Powers
Allied Powers
The Ottoman Empire
Great Britain
Question #9: What were the goals of Allied countries after World War I?
Great Britain, Italy and France
* The U.S. wanted world peace and improved security.
National Security
*President Wilson created "14 Points" for peace.
1-5: How do we make sure the causes of World War I don't happen again?
6-13: Lets create countries based on historical allegiances and nationalities.
14: Let's create a "League of Nations": A group that can work together to solve conflicts before they become wars.
Question #10: What did the Treaty of Versailles do?
Question #12: How did the US respond to the Treaty of Versailles?
*Even after Wilson worked on the Treaty of Versailles, people in the US were not happy with it.
"If the Treaty is not ratified by the Senate, the War will have been fought in vain, and the world will be thrown into chaos."
"If you want another war against civilization then let us go back to the conditions of 1914. If you want the possibility of sending once more our troops and navies to foreign lands, then stay out of the league."
*Congress felt the League of Nations would bind America to tightly to the rest of the world, and voted against us joining it.
Question #2: What new weapons/fighting styles were used in World War I?
In the end, the U.S. rejected the Treaty, Europe struggled to rebuild, and the table was set for a future
Question #4: How did the United States get involved in World War I?
President Wilson's 1916 Presidential campaign slogan was "he kept us out of war". What changed?!
*Once the Soviet Union left the war, the U.S. realized it wanted to help Britain and France more (because of trade ties) - and because of two aggressive actions carried out by Germany.
*The US originally viewed World War I as a "European issue", and at first declared neutrality.

Staying neutral allowed the U.s. to stay away from fighting in general - and to be able to sell war resources to both sides!
*On May 7th, 1915 a German U-boat sank a passenger ship "the Lusitania" - killing over 1,000 innocent people, and over 100 American citizens.
*A secret coded message was intercepted in 1917 proving that Germany was plotting against America by promising to help Mexico if they wanted to attack the U.S. and reclaim lost territories.

-Germany wanted the US distracted so we wouldn't enter the war, but the plan backfired!
April 2, 1917
"Neutrality is no longer feasible..."
*April 4, 1917:
Congress declares war on Germany
Question #5: How did America prepare for the war?
*To be able to fight well, America first had to solve a few issues:
*Issue 1: Paying for the war.
1) Raise Taxes
2) Sell War Bonds

*Citizens purchased war bonds to raise money for the war. Bonds are promises for the government to pay back the money loaned to them with interest. Buying bonds was seen as very patriotic and a way to help the soldiers.
*Issue 2: Feeding the soldiers.
1) Encourage less consumption
2) Urge the public to grow "Victory Gardens"
*Issue 3: Produce enough weapons and war supplies.
Solution: The War Industries Board
Technology Transforms Combat
Trench Warfare
Problem 1: War Guilt Clause
Problem 3: New Boarders
Problem 4: No Oversight
Terrible diseases, like "trench foot" were common if soldiers stood in damp, unsanitary, cold conditions for too long.

Many soldiers' toes and feet were lost from infections!
*A new device for the time, the "machine gun", could fire 600 bullets per minute and kill soldiers faster than any weapon in history.
*Chemical weapons, like poison gases, were used for the very first time.
*Tanks gave troops cover when moving from one area to another and helped them fire guns from protected spaces.
*World War I was the first war in which airplanes were used as weapons.

In 1918, the Germans made one final push
to capture France at the second Battle of the Somme, but the push was ineffective due to American involvement.
Question #8: When did World War I end? What were major outcomes?
*The Americans brought renewed energy and supplies to the war that the Allies desperately needed to win!
Question #3: Why did Russia suddenly take itself out of World War I in 1917?
*Germans felt unfairly punished. They saw this as a slap in the face by the rest of the world.

They also blamed weak German leadership, and rumors began that the Jewish people had "stabbed the German people in the back."

Land was divided, often without knowing if the people of new countries would get along.
*The League of Nations was never given any real power to solve problems.

There was still no organization that could help settle disputes before they became major wars.
*New technologies made a large impact on both styles of combat (fighting) and death rates:
1. War Guilt Clause
*Americans were encouraged to plant "Victory Gardens" and conserve food by having
"Meatless Mondays"and "Wheatless Wednesdays".
*The government created the War Industries Board, which took factories over and told them what supplies to produce and how much to make.
*Flamethrowers were used to clear battlefields in order to see better, and sometimes to attack enemy lines.
made this war far more deadly than any other war in human history.
*Both sides began digging large systems of trenches in the French and Germany countrysides to protect themselves from new and deadly weapons.
Fighting in WWI didn't just happen on land:
Fighting also occurred
in the sky,
...and at sea!
*Germany used
submarines called "U-Boats" to attack enemy ships.
In response to German weaponry, Allies used a "convoy system" to protect their ships by having planes fly over and protect them.
2. Military Restrictions
3. Territorial Changes
4. The League of Nations
Question #11: What were problems with the Treaty of Versailles?
*As part of a "War Guilt Clause" Germany had to accept 100% of the blame for the war.

*Germany had to pay millions in reparations (money to repair) to countries hurt by the war, even though it was broke.
-Germany couldn't put any troops in the Rhineland (buffer-zone between it and France) for at least 15 years.

*Germany had to reduce its military to just 100,000 troops - leaving it weak.
Allied countries took whatever land they wanted and drew new European borders at will.
*Wilson's dream, a "League of Nations", was created to provide security to its members.
Problem 2: Reparations
*Paying for the war killed the German economy.

The value of German money tanked and German citizens saw their savings become worthless, giving rise to even more anger.
Review Time...
*European countries were more concerned with making sure Germany was punished, and could never fight in a war again.
Warm Up:
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
Why do people fight? Come up with as many reasons for fighting as you can.
Benefits and Detriments of Trench Warfare
Level 4, #1:
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
What do you think was the biggest cause of World War I?
Warm Up:
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
Describe one of problems with the Treaty of Versailles.
World War I
The Russian Revolution:
Question #1: What were the MAIN causes of World War I?
(Leave room and come back to answer this AFTER answering Question #1)
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife Sophie, on June 28th, 1914.
"The Balkans"
*Once American soldiers entered the war they were treated as equals by the British and French, and the tides rapidly turned in favor of the Allies.
Discuss with a partner: why do you think these new weapons might have also made fighting/killing less personable than ever before?
-Trenches provided protection from machine guns and tanks.

-Trenches were open to gas attacks and bombs.
-Trenches were dirty, cold and wet - many soldiers got diseases from staying in them for too long.
-Trenches made it hard to win battles and for the war to advance.
*Poison gases would blister and burn the inside of soldiers' lungs and cause them to bleed to death.

-After World War I chemical weapons were largely banned, though some were still used in World War II.
-Today, using chemicals weapons remains highly illegal.
Effects of Chemical Weapons:
Manfred von Richthofen, known as the "Red Baron" was the most famous ace (an "ace" is what pilots were called) for having shot down at least 80 enemy planes on behalf of the German army.
Growing Unhappiness
*The war had become very unpopular in Russia. Millions of young men had died, the government was corrupt and peasants were starving to death.
Return of Lenin
*In October of 1917 Vladimir Lenin and his Communist followers (called the Bolsheviks) took over Russia's capital.
Russia Leaves the war
*Once the Communists took over Russia's government, they declared themselves the Soviet Union and signed a peace treaty with Germany to leave the war.
Eventually a man named Joseph Stalin took over the USSR and became a dictator, killing millions of people.
A man named Vladimir Lenin, who had been exiled from Russia for his extreme beliefs, returned (with the help of Germany) to fuel growing protests.
The USSR lasted until 1991, when it collapsed and became Russia again.
*2.) The Zimmerman Telegram:
*1.) The Sinking of the Lusitania:
The Germans continued to use submarines on passenger ships for years - angering many countries.
Question #6: How did the war change once Americans arrived?
American soldiers had the nickname of doughboys, because the brass buttons on their uniforms looked like flower dumplings, and the term eventually became used in various advertising campaigns!
*Public Support:
Never before had the entire country been involved in a war effort like this!
*The government also passed laws like the Espionage Act and Sedition Act to limit anit-war actions and speech.
*Massive propaganda campaigns encouraged ALL Americans to contribute to the war effort in ANY way they could.
Do you believe limiting freedom of speech to suppress anti-war beliefs during wartime is right or wrong?
The First Amendment of the Constitution provides freedom of speech, but there are always limits to this right:
"The Eleventh Hour"
After the United States entered Europe in early 1918, the Central Powers could not keep up fighting for long.
*Germany declared an "armistice" - an end to the fighting- and all major countries decided the fighting should stop at 11 a.m. on November 11th of 1918 (11/11/11/18).
Peace Talks:
Damages Done:
*Over four years of fighting, 20-25 million people had died.
*Much of France and Germany were also in total ruin!
Countries on the Allied side decided to send representatives to Paris, France - in particular, a palace named Versailles - to have peace talks.
*Soon, the Treaty of Versailles was written.
Germany was be shocked to find they were not even invited to the peace talks, so all decisions were made without them.
*Even after the Treaty of Versailles was written, most countries felt like nothing good had been accomplished, and that another war would be inevitable one day.
Outcome: No One Is Happy!
Discussion Question: Do you agree with any of the punishments that were given to Germany? Why or why not?
At least 5 million soldiers were missing, meaning their families never saw them again.
*Level 4, #2: Do you think the losing side of a fight or war should have a say in their own punishment?
*In 1920, Republican candidate Warren Harding is elected President on a promise of returning America to being isolationist - focusing on ourselves.
Wilson had to try and convince Congress to vote on allowing America to vote to join the League of Nations - which he had worked so hard to create.
Woodrow Wilson suffered
a serious stroke in 1919
and could not do much to try and change their minds.
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