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Cohesion In Sports

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K Stanfill

on 30 July 2015

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Transcript of Cohesion In Sports

Cohesion In Sports
Brianna Hesson
vital in understanding a success of team as well as an individual's performance.
What is Cohesion?
“A dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs “ (Carron, 1982).
More than just sticking together (Adhesion)
Also reflects commonality of purpose from team, or goals
There's more to it...
2 Types of Cohesion

Reflects the degree to which members of a team like each other and enjoy one
another’s company.
- Interpersonal attraction

The degree to which members
of a group work together to achieve common goals.
Why is it important in sports?
distinction between two is vital for overcoming team conflict
L.A.Lakers 2000
Kobe Bryant & Shaq O’Neal
Low in Social Cohesion, High
in Task Cohesion

Pittsburgh Pirates 1979
Motto “We are family”
- winning a championship
Factors of Cohesion
-Carron and colleagues’ came up with framework that outlines four factors that affect the development of cohesion in sports.
These include: Environmental, Personal, Leadership and Team.

Personal Factors:
How happy someone is
Playing time, attitude, aspirations
“Those early days were awfully tough on
Jackie. I remembered times when on the
train nobody would sit with him or talk
to him. Pee Wee Reese always seemed to
be the first to break the tension. He
kidded Jackie before anyone else… He
started being friends toward Jackie.
In the beginning, Jackie was alone at the
dining table. By the middle of the year you
couldn’t get a seat at the dining table.”
- Bobby Bragen
Leadership Factors
:leadership behavior/style
Team Factors:

group task, desire for group success, team ability/stability, past success
"Naturally there are going to be ups and downs, particularly if you have individuals
trying to achieve at a high level. But when we stepped between the lines,
we knew what we were capable of doing. When a pressure situation presented
itself, we plugged into one another as a cohesive unit. That’s why
we were able to come back so often and win so many close
games and beat more talented teams.”
-Michael Jordan

Supporting Research
Team & Individual Outcomes
Individual Outcomes
Behavioral consequences (both - and +)

Team Outcomes
The longer together, the more
Perform better.
Absolute/relative effectiveness

Enhancing Cohesion
Avoid jealousy
Team bonding
Set team goals
Develop team efficacy
Environmental Factors:
Normative forces
that hold a group together.
Application of Cohesion
2009- team activites
First team out of
UGA to make WCWS
Holt, N., Sparkes, A. (2001). An Ethnographic Study of Cohesiveness in a College Soccer Team Over a Season. The Sports Psychologist, (15). 237-259.
This Ethnographic study was done to identify and examine what factors contributed to team cohesion. Data was collected through participant observation, formal and informal interviews, a field diary, a reflexive journal, and documentary sources.
-Subjects: Collegiate Soccer team over an 8 month season.

"As season went on, both participants and myself felt cohesion was most important of individual and team peak performance"- pg. 243

Results from mid- season

Results from Late- Season
More Research
Martin, L. and Carron, A. (2013). Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. (17), 105-119.
-Much research is on adult population examining the correlation of cohesion. Martin Et Al. wanted to study cohesion in children's sport teams, aging from 9-12. He came up with a questionnaire of the CSCQ which was a 16-item questionnaire that had 7 questions dealing with social cohesion, and 7 dealing with task cohesion. He wanted to test the validity of the idea that athletes on teams with higher levels of task cohesion will experience lower levels of pre-competition state anxiety.
290 children, who came from six different elementary schools and played a variety of different sports.

-Study indicates how important cohesion is for children in sports.
- Task cohesion would have a greater influence on self-efficacy than would social cohesion.
-Like adults when children face anxiety it can decrease their enjoyment in sports.
It also showed how important social factors are for children's enjoyment (if they dont have these, they wont enjoy it as much).
- Most importantly, study provided support for the factorial validity of the CSCQ.
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