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Unit 3: War at Home; War Abroad
Transcript of Unit 3: War at Home; War Abroad
??Support Vietnam or France in 1946??
U.S. Supports "decolonization" everywhere
U.S. wants France as Cold War ally
U.S. anti-Communist stance
U.S. involvement in Vietnam = financial support
Winner of U.S. Support: France
Why support France? (really)
To CONTAIN Communism
Vietnam becomes a Cold War pawn.
"You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly. So you could have a beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profound influence."
~Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954
If Vietnam fell to communism, its closest neighbors would follow.
Vietminh trapped French for 56 day siege
15,000 French casualties
May 7, 1954 - French surrender
Independence to Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
Divide Vietnam - 17th parallel (North & South)
Ho Chi Minh - leader of North (Communist)
South - Anti-Communist; supported by U.S.
Free elections (1956) to unify country
Ngo Dinh Diem
Proclaims self President of Vietnam
Anti-Communist; America supports 100%
Refused to honor Geneva Accords
President Kennedy's Approach
Initially refused to commit troops
Sent "advisers" and listened to advice
1963-17,000 advisers in Vietnam, including troops
Approved training locals how to fight
Created Special Forces (guerrilla warfare specialists)
JFK on Vietnam
President Lyndon Johnson
Passed Civil Rights/Voting Act 1964
~war on poverty
President Johnson and Vietnam
1963-U.S. troops committed to fight
~fight against "resistance" in S. Vietnam (Viet Cong)
1964-Gulf of Tonkin
"Incident" involving U.S. ship in Gulf of Tonkin
No formal declaration of war; troops committed
Congress authorizes LBJ to activate the draft
1965-1967 Troop Escalation Continues
1968-50,000 American troops in Vietnam
~Loyalty demanded/questioned. No open debate
~Some argue: Gov't knows U.S. is losing...
1968-Tet Offensive (Turning Point)
Viet Cong (VC)
War of Attrition
~Political organization (S. Vietnam)
~Fought against U.S.
~try to wear down enemy with loss of men/supplies
~high body count is the goal
~usually won by side with more resources
~fight to rid N. Vietnam of Communism
Secretary of Defense
August 4, 1964
~Massive assault by Viet Cong throughout S. Vietnam
~Tactical victory for U.S., but strategic defeat.
*Proved the Communists hadn't lost the will to fight
Psychological and Political Turning Point
Vietnamese not being defeated; U.S. losing?
Media/Citizens turn on politicians
President Nixon's Approach
Invasion of Laos and Cambodia
Why? Destroy Ho Chi Minh trail
How? 100,000 tons of bombs in Cambodia
Response: "Savage" killing outraged Americans
Violent Anti-War Protests at Kent and Jackson State
~National Guard called to restore order
~4 students killed at Kent
~2 students killed at Jackson
1972-Nixon authorizes bombing of Hanoi
(N. Vietnamese capital)
~N. Vietnam does not yield
~These images further anger Americans
Paris Peace Accord
~Agreement to end the war
~South-not communist; independent
~U.S. withdraw by 1975
Fall of Saigon (1975)
U.S. officially leaves Vietnam April 29, 1975
Communists take control of country April 30, 1975
March 11, 1963 (Live TV)
A Generation in Conflict
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Port Huron Statement
Political system failing to achieve peace
Threat of nuclear war; more weapons
Lack of free speech @ college
Free Speech Movement
Orig. University Berkley, CA, 1964
Student political groups can't gather
~No free speech
No 1st Amendment rights on campus
Students across the country join FSM
UC Berkley agrees to uphold 1st/14th Amendment
University of Wisconsin
Freeman, Jo. "The Berkely Free Speech Movement." Encyclopedia of American Social Movements, edited by Immanual Ness, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2004, pp. 1178-1182.http://www.jofreeman.com/sixtiesprotest/berkeley.htm
Mario Savio, leader of the Free Speech Movement at UC Berkeley (1964) - from THE EDUCATION ARCHIVE, Intelligent Channel. Accessed 1 October 2015.
Talkin' 'Bout My Generation!
Beatniks, Hippies and Free Love - The Counterculture - THE COLD WAR. It's History Channel. Accessed 1 October 2015.
Impact of SDS, FSM, Counterculture Movements?
Boycott class (day-long)
Students, faculty meet to discuss war
Anti-War protests begin
Politically active generation
Global Anti-War Marches
From Peace to Resistance
Burn those draft cards!
Face 5 years in jail; $10,000 fine
"Peace with Honor"
Gradually end U.S. involvement in Vietnam
Supply S. Vietnam w/weapons
Supply S. Vietnam w/training
Political Response to Anti-War/Campus Protests
Reduction of ground troops
~Thousands of explosives-N. Vietnam
~Explosive projecting metal shavings
aka big flames, much death
Impact on Civilians?
One of many things that spark additional protests to troops in Vietnam:
My Lai Massacre