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The Immune System

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Madison Webb

on 5 April 2013

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Transcript of The Immune System

By: Madison Webb The Immune System Physical and chemical barriers are the first line of defense, and they are designed to prevent pathogens from entering the body. Examples of this are: Eyelashes, cilia of the respiratory tract, enzymes in tears and skin oil, stomach acid, and skin. The skin's oil contains bactericides, and perspiration forms an acidic layer that is inhospitable for microbial growth. The Immune Response First Line of Defense This is the non-specific defenses, which include three types of white blood cells- macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes- and so is called cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are cells which develop from monocytes. All of these cells use a process called phagocytosis to ingest bacteria.

The second line of defense is the arrival of non-phagocytic leucocytes at the infection site. These release histamine, which causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable to fluid and leucocytes. Increased blood flow and accumulation of fluid makes the area swollen and hot. The increase in temperature alone may be enough to destroy or neutralize some pathogens.

Phagocytosis is where the cells extends its membrane to form a bag around the target. Eventually the edges of the bag meet and fuse together and draw the target in. The result is a closed sac containing the target within the cell and an intact cell membrane. Second Line The third line of defense is called immunity, or antibody-mediated immunity. It is developed by the action of specific defenses using antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that recognize foreign substances and act to neutralize or destroy them. The immune system is different for everyone because of the variety of diseases that an individual could potentially be exposed to.

After a pathogen has been destroyed, the antigens from the pathogens protrude from the cell membrane of the macrophage. Once the antigens on the surface of the macrophage bind with the receptor sites of the helper T cells, the release of chemical messengers cause T cells to multiply. Antibodies on the B cell bind to the antigens. T cells bind to the B cell antibody0antigen complex. This activates the B cell, causing it to divide, producing memory B cells and plasma. Plasma produces enormous quantities of the same antibody carried by the B cell and release these to the blood stream to fight off invading pathogens. Even after the infection has been fought off, memory B cells remain in the blood. A helper T cells recognize the antigen and gives off chemical signals that stimulate the action of macrophages, B cells and other T cells. Killer T cells bind with infected cells and destroy them by puncturing a hole in their cell membranes. These can be activated indirectly by chemical signals from the helper T cell, or directly by the presence of the invading pathogen and associated antigen. Suppressor T cells slow and suppress the process of cellular immunity to ensure that normal tissue does not get destroyed. Some T cells do not respond to the invading antigens the first time they are exposed to them. Instead, these memory T cells remain in the bloodstream and are able to act quickly if the antigen is encountered again. Third Line I chose to present my information through a Prezi because it is interactive and allows you to add many different components, such as text, pictures and videos. First, I did research and found more information on the three levels of the immune system. Secondly, I found an illustration of immune system that I found effective in displaying the information presented. Lastly, I searched YouTube to find a short explanation, and demonstration of the immune system and how certain components allow other parts to work more effectively. One thing that I found interesting is how the body is able to react so much faster and with more force if an antigen is reintroduced to it. The immune response is how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. Bibliography
Immune Response. (2013, March 22). Retrieved April 05, 2013, from Medline Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000821.htm

Colbourne, H., Constantin, B., Dobell, D., Fehres, C., MacFadyen, D., Mason, A., et al. (2007). Inquiry into Biology. Whitby: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited.

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