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The Media...off the record
Transcript of The Media...off the record
Penny Press, Yellow Journalism and Party Press
Supreme Court Cases and Regulation
The increasing rapid pace of electronic news and
television’s global coverage shortens the time frame for policy responses.
In 1961, when the Berlin Wall went up, President Kennedy had 8 days to respond to the provocative action.
In 1989, when the wall came down, President Bush was forced to respond overnight.
Less partisan, but not
Hearst and the Spanish American war-
“You furnish the pictures
and I’ll get you the war”.
- cheap yellow paper,
sensational late 1800s
Upton Sinclair Progressive Era- media became to be more independent
Party Press 1770-1820
Press was seen as an extension of party
Until mid 1880s parties sold their proceedings
Watch dog role –Jefferson’s relationship with slave
Provides information and analysis about policy issues
Polling provides indicators for policy makers about public opinion
Reports and evaluates decisions of government
-responsibility of media to make public aware of corruption,
incompetence, illegal, unethical actions by politicians
attention on issues- is the tail wagging the dog?
The mass media may not be successful in telling people what to think,
but they are stunningly successful in telling their audience what to think about.
Average sound bite for Presidential candidate in 1968 was 42 seconds by
2000 less than 10 seconds
media polls drive news, candidates performance
constantly criticized, measured
Alert the public
about important developments
- term for primaries particularly-who is in lead, second etc.
Framing- how media
context-KKK rally more accepted if defined as civil rights story, less if public safety issue (572) In "The Martian" there is a line about 'framing" the storto get more funding from Congress
Press release- on paper document with official position given to reporters
Press briefing- limited topic-announcements then brief questions State Department or DOD
Press Conference- statement then questions on wide range of topics
Press and Public Officials 566
New York Times v United States
Secret “Pentagon Papers” published
Ruled that publication could NOT be blocked
Can not use “prior restraint” unless “overwhelming” justification such as
military movements before or during war
New York Times v Sullivan 1964
Libel requires proof
of actual malice- a knowing or reckless disregard for the truth.
"equal time rule"-
have to sell air time equally to all candidates if they choose to sell any
- rule required broadcasters to cover events with contrasting views- NO longer in effect, although talk of bringing it back
Content Regulation page 563
ederal Communications Commission
Control airwaves for
licenses and content
2003 changed rules about cross-ownership so
companies can now own different types of media outlets
Can reach 45% of national audience at any one time. So Time Warner can have movie, cable news and an entertainment show all on at same time-shill for one another
So information could be wrong, but has to printed or
NY Times found NOT guilty because malice not proved.
released with malicious intention-difficult to prove.
give info about rival, but won’t be the source
not be included in the article but is used by the journalist to enhance his or her view of the subject matter, or to act as a guide to other leads or sources. Most deep background information is confirmed elsewhere before being reported
Off the record-
whatever official says can NOT be printed-
but will get info somewhere else
unsourced "Deep background" This term is used in the U.S., though not consistently. Most journalists would understand "deep background" to mean that the information may not be included in the article but is used by the journalist to enhance his or her view of the subject matter, or to act as a guide to other leads or sources. Most deep background information is confirmed elsewhere before being reported
On the record Journalists protect sources- J
udith Miller went to jail for refusing to name her source re Scooter Libby Valerie Plame info.
CNN video http://www.cnn.com/videos/tv/2015/06/06/rs-reporters-war-on-off-the-record-comments.cnn