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Renewable Energy Sources
Transcript of Renewable Energy Sources
-Coal is one of the most toxic contributors of non renewable energy resources.
-Coal plants produce hundreds of millions of tons of toxic waste, including fly ash, bottom ash, and sludge that contains arsenic, uranium, mercury, and other heavy metals.
-High sulfur coal also leads to acid rain, an environmentally destructive occurrence. -Mountain top removal, a form of surface mining for coal, involves the use of large machines and explosives to expose coal seams below the surface. -Every step of the coal mining, cleaning and transporting process generates air pollutants.
-Avg. CO2 emission rate from burning coal is 2,249 lbs. per megawatt hour Coal Alarming Facts from the EPA How much did America spend on oil in 2011?
a) $380 Billion - cost of importing petroleum in 2011
b) $30 Billion - Cost of Coal annually
c) $600 Billion - Spent on food in 2011 How much did America spend on oil in 2011?
a) $380 Billion
b) $30 Billion
c) $600 Billion
d) $700 Billion Castillo de Bellver, 1983
-One of the 10 worst oil spills
Location: Off Saldanha Bay, South Africa
Gallons: 78.5 million Twenty years ago: Exxon Valdez was exiting Alaska's Prince William Sound when it struck a reef in the middle of the night.
-10.8 million gallons of crude oil spilled
-Covered 11,000 square miles of ocean. d) Answer - $700 Billion - Heat from the interior of the earth that comes from the formation of the planet (20%) and from decay of minerals (80%).
- The difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface has a constant thermal energy in the form of heat flowing from the core to the surface.
- At the core of the Earth, thermal energy is created by radioactive decay that later creates magma which heats up rock and water in the earth’s crust. How does it work? - The upper 10 feet of the Earth's surface maintains a constant temperature between 50° and 60°F.
- Geothermal heat pumps can tap into this resource to heat and cool buildings.
- A heat pump system consists of a heat pump, an air delivery system, and a heat exchanger-a system of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building.
- Hot water near the surface can also be used to heat buildings, grow plants in greenhouses, dry crops, etc. - In the U.S., most geothermal reservoirs of hot water are located in the western states, Alaska, and Hawaii.
- Iceland, Philippines, Japan and the United States depend on geothermal energy for a significant portion of their energy needs.
- Approximately 70 countries made direct use of geothermal energy in 2004.
- More than half went for space heating, and the remainder supported industrial and agricultural applications.
- In Asia, China was first known place to use hot springs as geothermal energy in the 3rd century BC. Where it's Used Pros Cons
•High construction costs
•Drilling into heated rock is very difficult
•Must maintain heat and not overuse it •Emission free
•No fuel required (no mining or transportation)
•Not subject to the same fluctuations as solar or wind
•Smallest land footprint of any major power source
•Virtually limitless supply
•Inherently simple and reliable
•Could be built underground - Florida has been on the leading edge of geothermal energy.
- The state is home to one of the best-known heat pump manufacturers, and it is among the top five states for installing geothermal heat pumps, and is also in the top five for exporting them to other states. Sense of Place -Wind energy is a process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity using wind turbines
-A wind turbine is a device that captures the energy of moving air and converts it to electricity How Does It Work? Major Components:
2) Rotor blades
3) Shaft/Gear box
5) Tower Pros -Free, renewable resource
-A predictable long-term cost of electricity for 20-30 years
-It is a clean, non-polluting, electricity.
-Economic development, job creation, and energy price stability
-Over 400 American manufacturing plants build wind components. Cons -Requires higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators
-A 10 kilowatt machine (the size needed to power a large home) might have an installed cost of $50,000-$80,000, and larger turbines ranging from $1-$4 million.
-Noise, aesthetics, avian mortality The Future of Planet Earth Our Ecological Footprints Nick's Ellen's Global Ecological Footprint How much is left? The following years are approximate as more reserves may be found, but since world population is expected to rise by another 30% over the next 40 years, new discoveries may be offset by a rising population's needs. Aluminum: 131 years
Coal: 150 years
Cobalt: 112 years
Copper: 31 years
Gold: 17 years
Iron: 79 years
Lead: 22 years
Natural Gas: 64 years
Nickel: 40 years
Palladium: 15 years
Petroleum: 42 years
Platinum: 56 years
Silver: 13 years
Tin: 17 years
Uranium: 32 years
Zinc: 17 years 100 years from now, Earth will start to vanish, and future generations will have nothing left to build on. Our legacy to them will be a climate in which they can barely live in. #1 China #2 United States #3 Germany #4 Spain #5 India #6 Italy #7 France #8 Canada Brazil off-shore wind is good for reasons:
1) Wind currents are strong and reliable.
2) The East Coast has an extensive, shallow off-shore area. This makes wind construction less expensive.
3) The electricity source is close to consumers East Coast 3 Global Leaders in Wind Power
-St. Lucie County is waiting for approval to build 6 wind turbines on FPL property.
Will be 1st wind project in Florida.
-FGCU, not currently concentrating on wind energy, though may in the future due to the Governor's goal to reduce carbon emissions. Sense of Place/Local Area Stephanie Fine
Ellen Schiffer Our Solution: Renewable Energy Sources
-Other alternate sources For a more civil and sustainable planet: Stephanie's Ivelisse's The Road to Renewable Renewable Energy is AMAZING because...
- We can use it repeatedly without depleting it
- No contribution to global warming
- No polluting emissions
- Low cost applications
- Health benefits Sources Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Thermal Collectors
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Convert Sunlight Directly into Electricity
Production is growing 45 percent annually
Production companies in:
Japan, Germany, the United States, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates
Nearly 1.6 Billion people live in communities not connected to electrical grid - it is often cheaper to install PV panels rooftop-by-rooftop What is it? Harnessing energy from the sun and converting it into usable energy - electricity or heat. Most efficient when placed nearer to the equator because this area receives the most direct sunlight for a longer period of time Solar Photovoltaics (PV) In Spain, a 20-megawatt facility completed in 2007 and a 60-megawatt facility completed in 2008
Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) announced contract in 2008 to build solar PV installastions with generating capacity of 800 megawatts in the US
Covering 12 sq miles
Can generate as much power as a Nuclear Power Plant
China Technology Development Group Corporation and Qinghai New Energy Group joined forces in 2009 to build a 30-megawatt facility in remote Qinghai Province Solar Thermal Collectors (CSP) In 1991, a 350-megawatt CSP plant complex was completed in California which was the world’s only utility-scale solar thermal generating facility until the completion of a 64-megawatt plant in Nevada in 2007.
As of early 2009, the US has 6,100 megawatts of solar thermal power plants under development. In mid-2009, a 290-megawatt CSP plant was announced for Arizona.
The United States has plants under development, most in California, including 8 of the 10 largest plants (ranging from 250 to 900 megawatts).
Under construction in Algeria is a solar/natural-gas hybrid plant.
Spain has about 50 plants in development (each about 50 megawatts).
India, especially the Great Indian Desert, offers huge opportunity for CSP plants. Pros Renewable resource
Usually cheaper to set up than a central power grid
Cost is decreasing as technology advances
No fuel cost and very little maintainence
Buying a solar PV system is buying a 25-year supply of electricity Cons Large upfront cost
Only works when solar radiation reaches cells/collectors
Less effective further from equator
Not effective after sundown Sense of Place Florida Gulf Coast University has a 2-megawatt solar field over a 200,000 sq foot area that powers several main buildings on campus.
As of December 2009, it was the largest working solar field operated by a university in the United States. Seeing solar panels upon rooftops of homes in Southwest Florida is not an uncommon site.
These solar water heaters are most commonly used as water heaters for swimming pools. I use a solar-powered keyboard with my computer at home. -Plan B 4.0
-http://www.stluciewind.com/questions.shtml Plant-Based What is it? Plant-Based is focused on obtaining energy through biomass and reusable industry byproducts such as: urban waste, livestock waste and crop residue Hydropower traditionally refers to dams that harnessed energy but today it also includes tides and waves in addition to rivers that convert running water into energy. How it works: How it works... HyrdroPower Plant-Based Ex:
Zero-waste Pros: The energy being produced comes from naturally based elements that can be replenished allowing for a steady cycle. Cons: Expensive
Environmental Consequences Countries by PV Capacity China - 7000 MWIndia - 1686 MWJapan - 4914 MWSaudi Arabia - 3 MWSouth Korea - 24 MWAustralia - 11 MWGermany - 25000 MWPortugal - 144 MWRussia - 5 MWSpain - 4214 MWUK - 1000 MW