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CHAP.12 APUSH Prezi
Transcript of CHAP.12 APUSH Prezi
school, Cole was born in England in 1801. In 1818
his family emigrated to the US. He painted the
background image we are using. He passed away in
1848. His work influenced other Hudson River
school painters such as Church and Durand. Antebellum Culture and Reform Kindred Spirits by Asher Durand In the Catskils by Thomas Doughty Twilight in the Wilderness By Frederic Edwin Church Literature and the Quest for Liberation The most popular novelist in America in the early nineteenth century was the British writer Sir Walter Scott, whose historical novels, set in eighteenth century England and Scotland, won him an impassioned readership in both Britain and America. This British domination was ended by the emergence of James Fenimore Cooper, an American author who captured Americans hearts with his tales of adventure and suspense. James Fenimore Cooper Writing over 30 novels in 3 decades. He was known as a master of adventure and suspense, and his description of the American wilderness became his best work. Coopers characters captured the American independent individual with a natural inner goodness all the way to the vicious grasping nature of some of the nations western settlers. Among Coopers work were novels such as The Last of the Mohicans and the Deerslayer. Walt Whitman Whitman, wrote about an unrestrained celebration of democracy and of the liberation of the individual.
His poems in Leaves of Grass
are still highly regarded today as classic American literature. Herman Melville Author Herman Melville, the greatest American novelist of his era, who wrote Moby Dick, reflected on the troubled human spirit and its often self-destructive force. Edgar Allan Poe As an author, Edgar Allan Poe, produced stories and poems that evoked images of individuals rising above the narrow confines of intellect and exploring the deeper world of spirit and the emotions, like pain and horror. Literature in the Antebellum South White southerners produced very different images in writing and art of what society was and should be. In the 1830’s, many southern writers produced historical romances of the plantation system of the upper south. Another group of southern writers produced works that were more broadly American and less committed to a glorification of the peculiarities of southern life. They focused on ordinary people and poor whites instead of romanticizing their subjects, sometimes using robust vulgar humor. One such powerful writer was Mark Twain. The Transcendentalists Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both man and nature. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that man is at his best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed. Ralph Waldo Emerson A well know essayist, lecturer, and poet, Emerson was the the
leader and the backbone of the Trancendentalist movement. Henry David Thoreau He believed individuals should resist pressure to conform to societies expectations and respond instead to their own instincts. In 1846, he went to jail rather then to agree to pay a poll tax. He refused to give financial support to a government that permitted the existence of slavery. The Defense of Nature Transcendentalists believed nature was the source of deep personal human inspiration in which individuals could best realize the truth within their own souls. They expressed horror at the destruction of the wilderness and began to mount a defense of preservation. The transcendentalists were among the first Americans to anticipate the environmental movement of the 20th century. I.E. John Muir Visions of Utopia Although transcedentalism was above all an induvidualistic philosophy, it helped spawn the most famous of all nineteenth century experiments in communal living. Examples of these are
that of Brook Farm and New Harmony. Brook Farm West Roxbury, Massachusetts in 1841, was a community where individuals gathered to create a new form of social organization. Every member would share equally in the labor of the community so that all could share in the leisure, which was the first necessity for cultivation of the self. Tension between the ideal of individual freedom and demands of a communal society took their toll on Brook Farm and the experiment dissolved in 1847. New Harmony New Harmony represents one of the less successful American utopian experiments. Like the Shakers which it followed, and whose organization New Harmony's founder studied, and Oneida , which would follow it, New Harmony resulted from the utopian vision of one man, Robert Owen. Redefining Gender Roles Transcendentalism and other movements of this period fostered expressions of a kind of feminism that would not gain a secure foothold in American society until the late 20th century. Margaret Fuller suggested the important relationship between the discovery of the self that was so central to antebellum reform and the questioning of gender roles. Onedia Community Established in 1848 in upstate New York, rejected traditional notions of family and marriage. All residents declared they were married to all other residents. There was not “free love”. Women were protected from unwanted childbearing. Children were raised communally. Shakers The society of the Shakers survived throughout the 19th and into the 20th centuries. All Shakers had to choose the faith voluntarily. They lived in conditions where contact between men and women as very limited, and endorsed the idea of sexual equality, and even embraced the idea of a god who was not clearly male of female. Shakers tried to create a society separated and protected from the chaos and disorder that they believed had come to characterize American life as a whole. The Mormons The Church of Latter Day Saints, began in upstate New York in 1830. Joseph Smith published The Book of Mormon, named after the ancient prophet who he claimed had written it. It told the story of an ancient and successful civilization in America, peopled by one of the lost tribes of Israel who had found their way to the New World centuries before Columbus. Later generations, after Jesus came to them after his resurrection, strayed from the path that Jesus had laid out for them. God punished them by darkening their skin. Smith believed these to be the American Indians. Smith believed he could start a new righteous society in the United States. New Jerusalem Beginning in 1831, and lasting over 20 years, The Mormons attempted to establish their “new Jerusalem”, but were met with persecution from surrounding communities suspicious of their radical religion doctrines, which included the right of men to marry more than one wife (polygamy). They began in Independence, Missouri and Kirtland, Ohio and moved on to Nauvoo, Illinois. Smith was killed after being arrested for treason and the Mormons followed their new leader, Brigham Young, to Salt Lake City, Utah where they were able to create a permanent settlement.. Mormon Temple Remaking Society The efforts to liberate the individual and impose order on a changing world helped create a wide range of new movements to remake society. These new organizations worked on a wide range of goal from temperance, to the rights of women. Revivalism, Morality, and Order Spurred from the many feelings and
movements created by the American people. A revival occured with religion, known as thesecond great awakening. But this was not a miracle from God, it was the individuals effort that created this religious revival. The Temperance Crusade In 1826, the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance emerged. In 1840, six reformed alcoholics organized Washington Temperance Society. Millions of people signed a formal pledge to forgo hard liquor. As the movement gained strength, it also became divided in purpose. Some wanted all liquor to be banned. Some wanted restrictions placed by the states on the sale of liquor. Others believed that temperance must rely on the individual. They were all trying to promote moral self-improvement and impose discipline on society. The prohibition laws pitted Protestants against Catholic immigrants. Health Fads Americans were turning to nonscientific theories for improving health. Health Spas became popular for hot/cold baths or being wrapped in wet sheets to improve people’s health. New dietary theories were adopted. Sylvester Graham promoted fruit, vegetables and bread made from coarsely ground flour and no meat, also limited excess of food. Phrenology Also a new “science” of phrenology, which claimed that the shape of an individual’s skull was an important indicator of his or her character and intelligence, was used as an important vehicle for improving society. Medical Science The biggest medical problem was the absence of basic knowledge of disease. In 1843, Oliver Wendell Holmes, a Boston essayist, poet and physician, discovered that puerperal fever could be transmitted from one person to another. The discovery of contagion was at first met with criticism but was later understood to be true. Reforming Education As of 1830 no state had a public education system. Horace Mann was the 1st secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. He thought that education was the only way to protect democracy because an educated electorate was essential to the free political system. Horace Mann Rehabilitation The asylum movement created places for criminals & the mentally ill. People were all crowded together in prisons or jail. In the 1820 facilities began to get better & mental institutions were the proper environment for the inmates.Prison reform brought on solitary confinement for the inmates to meditate on their wrong doings. Many other institutions were formed, like orphanages, homes for women without families and the poor. These places were formed so the inhabitants could be trained to live more productive lives. The Indian Reservation Americans had always been focused on moving Native Americans off their land. But in the 1840 - 1850s they decided to form reservations where Native Americans could live separate lives from the white people. In the 1820 – 1830s many women began to involve themselves in the Reform Movement. They began to look at the restrictions on their lives in resentment. They thought men and women were created equally. The Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 discussed the question of women’s rights. The biggest demand was for women’s right to vote. The Rise of Feminism The Crusade against Slavery Early Opposition to Slavery In the early 1800's, those who opposed slavery were calm and sensible. Their idea was to relocate the slaves to Africa or the Caribbean. A group was formed called the ACS – American Colonization Society. They tried to raise money to ship slaves to Africa and give their previous owners money as compensation. This was an expensive idea and didn’t have much success. William Lloyd Garrison He's da Mann Born in Massachusetts in 1805. He grew impatient with the moderate views that some people had about reform. He started a weekly newspaper called the Liberator. He wanted the immediate unconditional and universal abolition of slavery. He attracted many followers and created the Anti-slavery Society. Black Abolitionists Free blacks in the North usually lived in extreme poverty and in conditions that worse then South. There was extreme prejudice against blacks in the North. They were aware of their freedom and wanted to help blacks that were still in slavery. Fredrick Douglas was born a slave and escaped to freedom. He became a leader of the anti-slavery movement and he dreamed of not only freedom, but also social and economic equality. Fredrick Douglas Anti-Abolitionism White southerners looked at the movement with fear and contempt but so did many white northerners. This movement was a dangerous and frightening threat to the social system. Abolitionists were strong and outspoken people and therefore the anti-abolitionists became violent. Abolition Divided Garrison had extreme views on slavery. He suggested that America could get rid of slavery by having the Southern states leave the union. Other abolitionists believed in the long, peaceful, patient struggle to free blacks. Prigg vs. Pennsylvania This court decision in 1842 ruled that states didn’t have to return runaway slaves to their owners. Other Pro Abolition Influences The Free Soil Group wanted to keep slavery out of the territory. Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a book published in 1852 that had huge impact on the Abolition Movement. The Abolition Movement remained a powerful influence in the life of the nation. THE END