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Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee Research Assignment

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peter thomas

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee Research Assignment

Research Assignment Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee Allotment and Assimilation Period
(1887-1934) Further Research Period began with Dawes Allotment Act of 1887 The Allotment system did not work very well due to the fact that Natives were not accustomed to the idea.

Indians did not view the land as something to own, but rather as their home. Problems Allotment Banned many traditional and religious ceremonies and dances Assimilation Dawes' supposedly well-intentioned act tried to stimulate assimilation of Indians into white society but instead widened the gap between them and resulted in the loss millions of acres of Native American land "Kill the Indian, save the man" The new policy adopted at this time was based on the belief that traditional Native American culture had no value. The act allowed the President to survey and divide Indian tribal lands and distribute property to individual indians "Excess" land would be bought and opened up for white settlers Was designed to promote Indian assimilation into White Society Traditionally, Indian land belonged to a tribe and was given to them Allotment resulted in the loss of two thirds of tribal lands.

Loss of land was mainly due to the leasing, and eventually selling, of the land to white settlers. Reservation lands were broken up and assigned to individual indians as parcels, or allotments. The Dawes act outlined the allotments to be held in trust for 25 years ("Allotment Act 1887 and Assimilation")
The Federal government often disregarded this and shortened the time period whenever needed. Land owners could not sell their land without federal approval due to the trust status ("Allotment Act 1887 and Assimilation") Established boarding schools in which Indian children were required to attend Gave the children a white education and taught them to hate anything Indian Made Natives create their own white, christian names The Allotment and Assimilation period ended with the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which reversed the Dawes Act and returned Indians to a tribal, self-government system (ABC-CLIO SCHOOLS) Further Research Many of the issues caused by allotment were solved by the implementation of Native American Reservations, however the damage had already been done and Indians lost a majority of their land. The General Allotment Act was the policy that ultimately undermined the Native American's right to create sovereign entities within the United States. Native Americans have not completely assimilated into white society

Some speak their traditional languages and remain on the reservations still preserving their culture. The U.S Government believed Indians should assimilate and become farmers because it was seen to be a better way of life. They tried to accomplish this by giving each Indian family their own land so they could contribute to white society. Native Americans were seen as an obstacle for Manifest Destiny and as a result their once strong cultural identity was decimated Punished Native people for speaking cultural languages Threatened total annihilation if they did not assimilate ("Allotment Act 1887 and Assimilation") To promote Indian assimilation into white society, the Federal Government... Giving each Indian family their own land to contribute to the nation was seen as the first step towards their assimilation into white society Reflection Researching, along with reading and viewing, Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee (Dee Brown) has given me a stronger understanding and appreciation for the plight of American Indians General Allotment Act of 1887
(aka. The Dawes Act) Dawes was confident that has plan to divide lands into allotments was the best course of action for the Native Americans to take Part 1 The Dawes Commission
(aka. The Committee for the Five Civilized Tribes) Dawes so strongly believed his allotment system was the right plan that he went beyond the General Allotment Act and established the Dawes Commission Henry Dawes was a major contributor to the promotion of Manifest Destiny and the displacement of American Indians from their land The Dawes Act of 1887 and its intentions were rooted in Henry Dawes' effort to promote America's Manifest Destiny and secure Native American land for the United States. Peter Thomas 2nd Hour Many Indian tribes were reluctant to give up their lands, which led to violence and distrust between them and the government Learning about the Native American's rough history and the many injustices they suffered at the hands of the white's belief in the theory of manifest destiny has impacted how I view them today The theory of Manifest Destiny is reflected even today with American's ambition towards policing the world. The war in Iraq is a prime example of Manifest Destiny's lingering influence. This research has helped shape my understanding of the Native people and the way they live today. Before I did not quite understand the reservation system and how people could be a sovereign entity within a nation. Part 2 Henry L. Dawes Republican Massachusetts Politician widely known for his legislature on Native Americans Believed himself to be an advocate for the American Indian's cause. Thought his ideas were for the benefit of the Native American Most famous for passing the General Allotment Act through Congress in 1887 Chairman of the Committee of Indian Affairs
("DAWES; Henry Laurens") Dawes worked endlessly to enact legislation granting him permission to install the allotment system In 1887 he was able to pass an act through Congress which:
Gave the President authorization to survey and divide tribal lands into allotments for the individual Indian (World History: The Modern Era)
Allowed "excess" land to be bought and sold to white settlers (World History: The Modern Era) Allotments given to Indians were often far removed from any tribal ties or relatives The allotment policy depleted the land and ended the Native traditional way of hunting as a means of subsistence The committee was authorized under an Indian Office bill in 1893 Its purpose was to convince tribes not included under the original allotment act to cede their tribal lands and adopt the allotment policy. The main targets were the five civilized tribes, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Chocktaw, Creek, and Seminole. Came to be known as the Dawes Commission once Henry L. Dawes was appointed chairman by President Grover Cleveland in 1893, however the official name remains The Committee for the Five Civilized Tribes After being appointed chairman of the Committee for the Five Civilized Tribes, Dawes served for ten more years Negotiated for the removal of Native American title to tribal lands and the dissolving of their governments Ultimately hoped to make Indians constituencies within the United States The differing opinions on 'ownership' of land between white culture and Native American culture played an important role in the struggle between them. Whites saw land and something that can be physically owned while Indians believe that land is given to them. Examples of forcing one group's culture and values onto another include the White's effort to assimilate Indians through boarding schools. More modern examples include Israel's struggle to resist Islamic influence and the feud between Sunny and Shi'ite Muslims. Works Cited Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of
the American West, by Dee Brown, Owl Books (30th
Anniversary Edition), 2001 (orig. pub. 1970)
"Dawes Act (1887)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. "ABC-CLIO SCHOOLS." ABC-CLIO SCHOOLS. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. "Allotment Act 1887 and Assimilation." Allotment Act 1887 and Assimilation. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. "DAWES, Henry Laurens - Biographical Information." DAWES, Henry Laurens - Biographical Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.
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