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HL Nazi Social Policies
Transcript of HL Nazi Social Policies
The leader of the youth movements was Baldur Von schirach. By 1939 membership became compulsory. By 1939 overall membership increased by 77.2% i other words 7,000,000.
Hitlers Nazi Youth Policy
Nazi Social Policies
Policies on Women
“They cannot think logically or reason objectively since they are ruled only by emotion(Hinton and Hiten 293)."
Nazi Youth Movements
Nazi Art and Culture
How successfully did the Nazis impose their ideology on German women?
Purpose of Women
The purpose for Nazi women was to be married and have many children (about four).
Government propaganda urged women to have more children to strengthen the Nazi Volksgemeinschaft(national community).
Sexual activity is not for the pleasure of an individual but simply to procreate(to bring forth offspring).
Goebbels(German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany) said, “The mission of women is to be beautiful and bring children into the world...The female bird pretties herself for her mate and hatches eggs for him. In exchange, the mate takes care of gathering the food, and stands guard and wards off the enemy”.
1. Remember that you are German.
2.If you are genetically healthy you should not remain unmarried.
3.Keep your body pure.
4.You should keep you mind and spirit pure.
5.As a German, choose only a spouse of the same or Nordic blood.
6.In choosing a spouse, ask about his ancestors.
7.Health is also a precondition for physical beauty.
8.Marry only for love.
9.Don’t look for a playmate but for a companion for marriage.
10.You should want to have as many children as possible.
Sexual Activity & Procreation
Nazi's ideology was partially success.
Ten Commandments for Choice of Spouse (Hinton&Hite 294):
Less women stay at home instead of go to work. The percentage of women in employment fell from 37% to 31% in 1932 to 1937.
1. Reduced the number of female workers.
2. Enabled the government to justify its campaign for women to give up work for the benefit of unemployed men.
3.Labor exchanges and employers were advised to discriminate positively in favor of men.
Female employment reversed
However, after Germany attended into WW II, the economic necessity and lack of labor (men wen to front line) let female employment reversed.
The percentage of women increase from 31 percent to 33 percent of the total workforce.
How did the Nazi's try to implement their ideas?
Systems and organizations
Examples of "Acceptable" Art
Even economy let more female went to work, women were still underemployment.
It's hard to maintain housework and jobs together.
German women play a important role on farm traditionally, so they needs to take care of farms especially after young men went to war. (By 1944 it is estimated 65 percent agricultural workforce were women)
Similarities Between the Church and the Nazi's
- They shared traditional values such as the need for a strong family life as well as both were anti- communism
-Respect for the state and nationalism
- Many christians also shared in anti-Semitism
restrictions were placed on women's employment in the Civil Service
"In the event of males and females being equally qualified for employment in public service, the male applicant should be given preference." -Official Guidelines for Recruiting Civil Servants
The female employment reversed let Hitler's government decided to end the marriage loan scheme for women who went back to labor market.
Source:Hinton and Hite
Source:Hinton and Hite
- Hite and Hinton pg 305
loans were granted to women who gave up their jobs to get married
"All single and married women up to the age of 35 who do not already have four children should be obliged to produce four children by racially pure German men. Whether these men are married is of no significance. Every family that already has four children must set the husband free for this action." -1943 Marriage Law (drafted, but not enacted)
Hitlers Thoughts on Christianity
Kahlenberg peasant family, oil painting by Adolf Wissel, 1939.
Water Sport, by Albert Janesch,1936.
Night by Georg Kolbe, 1930
- Hitler was raised catholic
- Hitlers beliefs differed with that of the catholic church: "He wanted to replace Christianity, a religion reflecting the values of an inferior race, with a new, assertive Aryan faith. (Hinton and Hite)"
- Hitler realised early on he could not try to get rid of churches in the early stages of power so he started trying to gain support from the church and then slowly reduce its power.
(Hinton and Hite pg 305)
Man in the Dark, by Max Beckmann, 1934.
-Unreliable teachers were removed and Jewish teachers were banned
-Ensure that all teachers followed are committed
Panama Dancers, by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.
Dancing with Fear, by Paul Klee.
What was censored: 'New Objectivity' artists like Georg Grosz and Otto Dix had an aggressive style for depicting the state of society through everyday life.
Walter Gropius' Bauhaus style influenced furniture and architecture. Its purpose was to be functional by using steel, cement, plastic and geometric shapes.
In July 1937 there were contrasting exhibitions to praise what the government thought was 'Great German Art' versus 'Degenerate Art' because Hitler hated modern art.
Nazis celebrated Volksgemeinschaft (people's community) which is the feeling of German solidarity by praising 19th century Romanticism.
Programs to Promote Childbirth
grocery parcel delivery
child/baby clothing provided
National Socialist Teachers' League
Four youth groups and ages:
Boys 10-14 german Young People.
Boys 14-18 Hitler youth.
Girls 10-14 league of young girls.
Girls league of German girls.The boys engaged in endless physical and military type activities(i.e target shooting)
The girls prepared o their domestic and aternal task(i.e cooking)
-By 1937 97% of all teachers had joined the league
-The teachers attended a one month training course mainly focused on Nazi ideology, physical education and changes in the curriculum
Goebbels believed the film industry should be expanded.
Propaganda: The Eternal Jew (Ewige Jude) potrayed Jews in the worst manner possible.
Escapism: The Adventures of Baron von Münchhausen, comedy based on German legend in which the baron has immortal powers.
Films or documentaries about German sports; Olympia (Berlin Olympics), Triumph of the Will
Ideal Nazi Woman & The Modern Woman (Hinton&Hite 295)
The impact of Hitler's youth is very mixed: suffered from its rapid expansion in membership and the leadership was inadequate. But successes were commendable provision unlike other European countries in sports, camping, music and other opportunities.
Purpose of School
BDM LEADER: Hitlers youth movement was more of a state youth organization. Was the instrument used by the national socialist regime to run its ideological training of young people and the war work for certain age groups.
.."train human beings to realize that the State is more important that the individual that individuals must be willing and ready to sacrifice themselves for Nation and Fuhrer (Hite and Hinton 280)"
-Physical education became a larger part of the curriculum, it took almost 15 percent of the their school day
-Teachers emphasis the importance of hierarchy
-Religion was downgraded and eventually replaced
-Creating more single sexed schools to make sure each gender got the appropriate education
-Nazi ideas were incorporated into the literature, history and biology classes
-The government‘是s pressure led many parents to vote for the end of denominational schools
-In literature classes the read books like The Battle of Tannenberg
-Biology classes incorporated Nazi racial theory: ethnic classification, population policy, and racial genetics
-History classes were important to emphasis German nationalism
-National Political Institutes of Education (NAPOLAs) created by Minister Rust
-Adolf Hitler Schools created by Youth Leader Schirach and DAF leader Ley
-Used to prepare the best of Germany's youth for political leadership
-Focused on physical training, paramilitary activities, and political education
-1936 NAPOLAs were taken over by the SS
-21 by 1938 and 39 by 1943
-Free boarding schools for 12-18 year old, selected mainly on physical appearance and leadership potential
-Curriculum was more focused on physical, political and military training than NAPOLAs
-Virtually from birth German children were to be brought up as good national socialists and loyal followers of Hitler.
How did the Nazis use youth movements to inculcate their values?
-Nazi used two major institutions to achieve their aims
-The school system
-The Hitler Youth, created in1926, expanded rapidly after 1933 with the support of the government. It organized a variety of activities, such as camps, sport and military training.
-Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda message.
- These message were designed to emphasize the movement was one of youth and hope.
- Many German youth were won over to Nazism in the classroom and through extracurricular activities.
- In January 1933, the Hitler youth had only 50,000 members, but at the end of the year it was more than 2 million.
-By 1936 membership increased to 5.4 million and became mandatory in 1939 and the German authorities prohibited competing youth organizations.
BOTH: Used to shape the beliefs of Nazi Youth. Involved extracurricular activities.
-Train to one day become members of the Stormtroopers.
- Several activities included: Camping, hiking, military training and sports games.
League of German Girls
-Collective athletics such as gymnastics- Germany health authorities said this was to be "less strenuous to the female body"
-Nazi ideologies were integrated into each activity
-These values encouraged young men and women to favor the goals of the collective Aryan community rather than their independence.
- Student population decreased by 1939 because of the Nazi downgrading of education but increased by 1944 because of the increase of female students
-University teachers were forced to sign a 'Declaration in support of Hitler and the National Socialist State'.
- Universities curriculum were changed to fit Nazi ideas which meant that the schools standards were declining
-The government soon realized that they were not reaching the standards of other countries so they wanted to train more scientist to compete with other countries
salut to Hitler!
a british teacher in Germany describes the situation in schools in 1933
"Nazis were went to schools, where they walked into the classes and cross-examined the teacher in front of his pupils. If they thought it necessary they arrested him at once."
Nazis thoughts on Christianity
- Nazi's taught strength, violence and war where Christianity preached love and forgivness
-Also Jesus was Jewish
German Faith Movement
People to Note
- One of earliest party members
- Educated and scholarly figure
-He was extremely anti semetic and ANTI- CHRISTIAN
Pastor Martin Niemoller
- Co-founder of the confessional church
-A critical sermon put him into a concentration camp in Dachau
-He supported Hitler at first until he realised Hitler was trying to control the church's, he then took an opposing role
-Niemoller is a notable man due to his writings on the nazi's
-Layton page 69
When the Nazis came for the Communists I stayed quiet: I was not a Communist.
When they came for the Social Democrats I stayed quiet: I was not a Social Democrat.
When they came for the Trade Unionists I stayed quiet: I was not a trade Unionist
When they came for the Jews I stayed quiet: I was not a Jew.
Then they came for me And there was no-one left to protest.
- Layton page 69
Conciliation and Conflict
Churches and the State
German Christians wanted to nazify Christianity by replacing Christianity with a new pagan Nazi faith.
The SS held marriages in Runic carved rooms.
-Hinton and Hite page307
"Jesus was a cowardly Jewish lout who had certain adventure during his years of indiscretion. He uprooted his disciples from blood and soil... At the very end he insult the majesty of death in an obscene manner."
-The journal of the Faith Movement, 1937
- Germany: The Third Reich 1933- 45 by Geoff Layton
-Nazi Social Policy Packet: Hinton and Hite
3 main stages of policy toward the Churches
Nazi Policies Towards the Church
1. GAINING control over churches
2. WEAKENING traditional Christianity
3. REPLACING Christianity with Nazi religion
-Hitler wanted to give the impression of unity between the protestant church and the state so the SA members were encouraged to attend protestant church
- Concordat was signed between the church and the Nazis stating that:
1. the Nazis would not take away Catholic Churches religious freedom
2. The Nazis would not ruin catholic property or take away legal rights
3. The nazis could not take control of catholic education
- In return for these three things the Church "would not interfere in politics they would give diplomatic recognition to the Nazi government. Layton 67"
->DIDN'T REALLY WORK OUT
Neither side really meant what they were saying in the Concord
By the end of 1933 there was already conflict with Nazi interference causing dislike from both the Catholic and Protestant Church
The Nazis wanted the Protestant churches to be influenced by the "German Christians" in hopes that this group will combine both the Protestant way with Nazi beliefs
This caused opposition groups like the Confessional Church made by previously mentioned Niemoller
- Ministry of Church affairs was established to destabilize the churches: led by Hanns Kerrl
-What he did:
1. Closed christian schools
2. undermined catholic youth groups
3. campaigns stating that the clergy were committing sexual and financial malpractices (over 200 priests accused of this)
4. Take away funds to the church
5. Arresting more pastors and priests
- Layton page 68, Hinton and Hite 309
Unified Protestant Reich Church -> separation of Confessional Church
Concordat agreement with Pope -> criticism of state infringement of the Concordat
More nazified Protestantism -> Provocation of reaction and increasing support for Confessional Churches
Replacement of Christianity -> postponed until after the war
The Church was weakened but this caused the churches to take stances of opposition
-Niemollers sermon: "We must obey God rather than man"
-the pope attacked the nazis in a public letter
As the Nazis got stronger so did their stance against the church: More executions and destroying Church property
Did the Nazis succesfully take over the churches?
- The German Faith movement was a failure
-Many christians made stances against the nazis
-The faith survived even though Nazis tried to destroy it
-You could say the churches failed because they were willing to compromise in order to keep their religion
-in 1937 over 100,000 christians left the church and there were 3.5 million Germans in the neo- pagan movement
Number of Christians in Germany
The majority of German people were Christian: Of the christians 2/3 were protestant and 1/3 were catholic
-page 66 Layton
-22 million Catholic members, 40 million protestant members: Making up 90 percent of the German population
-Hinton and Hite
-He was the catholic Bishop of Munster, he supported Hitlers nationalism but was anti the racism
- Like Niemoller he preached anti- Nazi sermons but he was luckily to popular to be punished
-"Known as the 'Lion of Munster', Galen has been described as the only effective protester in the Third Reich. Hinton and Hite 311"
Galen was only arrested once and he was released a year later.
-Hite and Hinton page 311
Bishop Clemens Von Gallen
Key Religious organisations
The Reich Church
Organisation of protestant churches. Within Germans developed powerful movements.
wanted to restructure the protestants into a new brand of Christianity. The SA of the Church
Wanted to break away from the Reich Church. Not based on opposition.
German Faith Movement
Wanted to replace Christianity with a new pagen Nazi faith.
-Hite and Hinton page 307
Layton, Geoff. Germany: The Third Reich, 1933-45. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996. Print.
Dress That Nazi Woman
Therefore, from 1933 the birth rate increased significantly, reaching a peak in 1939.
Historian Gisela Bock in the 1980s has viewed Nazi thinking on women as a kind of secondary racism in which women were the victims of a sexist-racist male regime that reduced women to the status of mere objects(Layton 75).
"Nazi policy objectives for women and the family could not really be squared with the social realities of twentieth-century Germany. With the changing population trend and the increasing employment of women, Nazi views on women and the family were idealistic but impractical. Consequently, Nazi policy towards women and the family was contradictory and incoherent(Layton 76). "
The Nazi regime tried to control all aspects of German life.
They tried to impose Nazi ideology of the Aryan race, German superiority and history through art and culture.
-Militarism and glorification of war
- Nationalism and the supremacy of the Aryan Race
-the Führer and the power of absolutism
“The Burning of the Books”
Modern art was frowned upon because they thought average people would be able to better understand clear, traditional images better.
Hitler wanted to create "healthy" Aryan art as opposed to degenerate art. Sculptures were placed outside of buildings to show “perfect Aryan bodies” (Hinton).
He wanted to be portrayed as the wise, imperious leader (Hinton).
All working artists had to be a part of the Reich Chamber of Culture and the state could withdraw licenses to teach, to exhibit art, and even to paint by issuing a Malverbot, painting forbidden (Hinton).
On May 10, 1933 in Berlin, thousands of books from private and public libraries were burned by Nazis because of their undesirability. They were either Jewish books or had socialist or pacifist tendencies. Art and culture was used as propaganda to mold the German people’s opinion. The Reich Chamber of Culture was supervised by the Propaganda Ministry. (Layton, 77)
“What we are aiming for is more than a revolt. Our historic mission is to transform the very spirit itself to the extent that people and things are brought into a new relationship with one another.” – Goebbels.
Musical works like Bach and Beethoven were held on a pedestal by the Nazis. Jewish composers like Mahler and Mendelssohn were banned. Jazz and dance-band were given the derogatory names of being “Negroid” and “decadent” genres.
Were the Nazis successful in creating a new cultural identity?
Goebbels was successful in censoring culture by Nazi standards.
They were not successful in implanting their mindset on the Volk.
In 1945, there was a powerful cultural resurgence where German traditions and its cultural identity were not suppressed by the Nazi regime.
Ads placed in Newspapers:
Man searching for ideal Nazi woman
"52 year old doctor. Wishes to settle down. Wants male child through marriage to young healthy Aryan woman. Should be undemanding, used to heavy work, not a spender, with flat heels, without earrings."
Women "selling" themselves to men
"Two vital, lusty, Brunhildes with family trees certified back to 1700 desiring to serve their Fatherland..., would like to meet two similarly inclined Siegfrieds. Marriage not of essential importance..."