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Unit 303 Principles of Leadership and Management

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rhian lewis

on 31 October 2016

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Transcript of Unit 303 Principles of Leadership and Management

Croeso, joiwch y cyflwyniad!

Understanding the principles of effective decision making
What is your definition of a decision?
Defining a 'Decision'
Please turn to page 6-8 of your workbook
Root Cause Analysis
What are values?
What is leadership?
How do you think managers should deal with:
Infrastructure &
Foreign Aid

Technical Services

Healthcare Technical Services (HCTS) Components
Understanding the difference between Leadership and Management
Define leadership
define management
Vision, values, goals, targets, and intersectoral policy alignment

A robust situation analysis

The possible scenarios and policy directions

A comprehensive strategy to respond to the challenges and implement the policy directions

The leadership and governance arrangements for implementing the strategy
Comprehensive policy must covering
Are exactly what they are.....
Targets on the other hand...
Methods of making decisions
The qualities of an ideal leader may include
This session will introduce you to the
principles of leadership and management
Understand the principles of effective decision making
Understand leadership styles and models
Understand the role, functions and processes of management
Understand performance measurement
' A conclusion or resolution reached after consideration'
(Oxford Dictionary)
How do we get to the decision stage?
In order to resolve a problem or issue, you need to be clear in your objectives along with the scope and success criteria of the decision to be taken.
Why should the objectives be clear?
To be efficient and effective in decision making
To ensure that decisions are 'fit for purpose'
To solve the 'right' problem at it's root (rather than addressing the symptoms)
So that people can have confidence in the decision maker's leadership
To be able to refer decisions that are beyond the scope to the appropriate person
To avoid having the problem growing and impacting on other areas of work
Pathways to change model
For every problem there will be a series of options, all of which will have a set of implications.
What? Why? When? Where? How?
- Rational Problem Solving
RCA - helps you to ensure you have enough information to make effective decisions. General principles include:
RCA is based on the belief that problems are best solved by attempting to correct or eliminate root causes;
To be effective, RCA must be performed systematically, with conclusions and causes backed up by evidence;
There is usually more than one potential rot cause for a problem; and
RCA can transform an old culture that reacts to problems with a new culture that looks to understand and learn from problems. This leads to a culture that is open and seeks to identify and solve problems before they escalate.
Problem Definition
Data Collection
Identify Possible causes
Identify Root causes
Recommend & Implement Solutions
Information Gathering - the 5 Ws
and the H
Lets look at page 13
Aligning Decisions with Business Objectives, Values and Targets
Using your company's mission
statement, record in pairs the
elements that relate to values
Capture any additional
values that you know are applied within the organisation.
Values are essentially standards
and conditions that relate to what
is considered important and
necessary for the organisation
Goals and targets that are not consistent with
personal values can cause conflict.
Distinguishing facts from opinion
Opinion words include: always, never, all, none, least, greatest, best and worst.
Some opinions can be stated as though they are facts,but if you cannot find information to verify its validity, it is probably an opinion.
Facts often contain dates, numbers or ages. they are about a specific person place or thing. You can find information to prove what is stated.
To determine a fact ask yourself, "can I prove this statement?"
Croeso, joiwch y cyflwyniad / Welcome enjoy the presentation
Issues hampering the achievement of targets?
Issues hampering the achievement of quality standards?
What is 'quality'?
Is quality the same as excellence, and if so, how do we know when something is excellent? What makes one thing of higher quality than another? Why is quality important? What benefits does it bring?
There have been a number of definitions of quality ......
"Meeting of customers needs" W.Edwards Deming
"Fitness for use" J.M. Juran
"Conformance to requirements" Phillip B. Crosby
Textbook definitions include:
"Meeting or exceeding, customer requirements"
"The degree to which a product or service satisfies 'customers' requirements"
A bit of fun....
We will use these skills latter on ..
With a partner, try and list 10
ways of making decisions
Your list of decision-making methods may include:-
Survey results
Toss a coin or draw straws
Most compatible
Rule based decision
Legal decision based on law
Constraint based
Cheapest investment
Earliest benefits
The Problem Solving Process
Lets have a look at the problem solving handout.....
If we acept the premise that a problem is the
difference between what is happening and
what you would like to be happening, and a
decision is a considered response to remedy
that situation, then the diagram on the
handout gives you a framework within
which you may operate.
Issues that hamper achievement of targets and quality standards can be addressed using a simple problem solving tool.

Have a look at the handout.......
Vision: a clearly defined vision that can be communicated to others, giving a common purpose to group or team activities
Tenacity: leaders don't give up when things get tough, they dig in, take stock and forge ahead once more
Adaptability: when faced with an obstacle that can't be overcome, leaders will look for a different route to get them where they want to go
Enthusiasm: they maintain a positive attitude and help others to keep their spirits up, especially when things get tough
Confidence: in themselves, in the team, and in the vision they are working towards
They are honest, don't have favourites and are fair in all things.
Initiate Change
Challenge the
status Quo
Set the pace
Follow procedure
Lets complete the activity on page 27
Likely characteristics
Leadership Theories
Action Centred Leadership Model
Task need
The group comes together when things have to be done that are too much for one person to handle.
Group need
The need to create and promote group cohesiveness. The role of the leader here may be defined as 'building and maintaining the team'.
Individual needs
Physical, psychological, status, a sense of personal worth.
Trait Theories
The trait theory looks at the characteristics and attributes - traits of a leader. This theory suggests it is possible to select people for leadership roles by identifying the traits in them. It focuses on who the leader is rather than what they do.
Adaptable to situations
Alert to social environment
Ambitious and achievement orientated
Self - confident
Tolerant of stress
Willing to assume responsibility
Clever (intelligent)
Conceptually skilled
Diplomatic and tactful
Fluent in speaking
Knowledgeable about group task
Socially skilled
Behavioural theories
This model is based on the assumption that leaders can be trained and developed to behave in certain ways. One of the most prominent theories is that of Douglas McGregor. Theory X and Theory Y.
Lets have a look at your preferance?
Authoritarian management style. Proposes that the average person dislikes work and will avoid it if they can. Assumes that people want to be directed. They will avoid responsibility. They lack ambition and seek security.
Participative Management Style
Proposes that people enjoy work and will be prepared to give their best. Assumes people are committed to, and will pursue, organisational goals and objectives without threat of punishment. They thrive on responsibility and the opportunity to solve workplace problems.
Contingency Theories
Proposes that the leader must adapt his or her style of leadership to reflect both the needs of the team and the context in which the task is to be carried out.
Fred E. Fiedler's model focuses o the link between leadership and organisational performance. he argues they will either be task
orientated or relationship oriented. The leader was asked to
score on a sacle of 1 - 8 in 16 key areas what their attitude to
the person whom they least liked to work.
Please turn to page 34
Situational Leadership
There are 2 specific types of behaviour. Directive and supportive. The combination of these behaviours determines the style of leadership used; hence the 4 distinct leadership styles:
Please have a look at the descriptions
to the styles on page 36 of your work book
Leadership Styles and Culture
Lets consider the culture of the organisation that you work in. What is the predominant leadership style and what impact does it have? Use page 43 of your work book to record your thoughts.
To delegate is to: ,,,,....... 'entrust (a task) to another person.....'

The leader, in doing this must consider a number of factors....
Consider the following factors to consider when delegating a task:
Importance of the task
Urgency of the task
Complexity of the task
Skills, knowledge and experience of individuals
Capacity within the team
Impact on other members
Readiness of an individual
Willingness of an individual
Level of support
Consequence of failure on the team, individual and person
Responsibility and accountability is crucial to consider when delegating tasks. Tannenbaum and Schmidt's seven leadership styles are sometimes described as delegated levels of freedom. these are:
The Leader takes the decision and announces it.

The Leader takes the decision and 'sells' it to the team.

The Leader presents the decision, background information and invites questions.

The Leader proposes a decision and invites discussion about it.

The Leader presents the issue, gets suggestions and then decides.

The Leader explains the issue, defines the parameters and asks the team to decide.

The Leader allows the team the freedom to identify the problem, develop the options, and decide on the action.
In groups, have a look at the handouts on motivation.

Create a definition of what you understand by the term motivation.

Consider why we motivate employees and what is suggested in your reading that motivates them.

Define what effects motivation levels in your place of work.
Pause for thought ..............
If an organisation's cultural
atmosphere is plagued with negativity
this can be disastrous as once a cultural
mind-set is in place it is difficult to
Leaders who invest time and
effort into developing a positive
working environment often find
Happy employees
Leadership and motivation
" the impact you have on yourself and the impact you have on people around you'
allows us to focus on why leadership is so crucial
in motivating others and ourselves.
Attitudes are infectious
Lets have a look at page 51 - 58 of the workbook
Complete the activities on page 54 - 58.
Motivational theories to consider:
A H Raymondson
Please visit the IAG portal to gain access to handout 1 and 2 on motivation

User name: IAG Password: Matrix 2012
Learner resource section, Management 3.
Lack of employee motivation leads to a range of performance problems including:
Reduced productivity
Increased absenteeism
Effects others morale and energy
Increased staff turnover
Increased negative stress for individuals
Levels of customer care diminish
Reputation is tarnished
Training costs increase
Inter team conflict
The role of managers and management
Planning co-ordinating and controlling work
A plan can be defined as: 'A description of
how we intend to reach an objective".

Planning enables you as a manager to
determine the outcome you want to achieve and the tasks to be undertaken.

What planning techniques do you use in your day to day activities?

To plan effectively you need to know how to estimate.

Estimation is simply your best guess, based on your own knowledge and experience. A good tool to help you is to consider "best case", "worst case" and "middle case".
Tools to help you plan could include:
To do list
Gantt charts - see page 67 of workbook
Network diagrams - see page 67 workbook

In controlling work, there are 5 activities a manager will undertake. These are:
Ensuring quality standards are met and products and services are fit for purpose
Managing the team
Ensuring that work remains within budget
Ensuring that outputs are delivered on time
Managing risk and issue
Clear direction for the team is detailed in the team plan, peoples roles within the team need to be defined.

SMART team objectives provide a solid framework for monitoring and control.
Organisational Vision, Mission Statements and Objectives
A Mission Statement typically defines the organisations purpose and primary objectives. Its prime function is internal - to define the key measure or measures of the organisations success - and its prime audience. The mission statement focuses on what constitutes success for the business.
From the mission statement, it is normal to have a set of organisational goals for possiblythe short, medium and long term.

The objectives set will be specific statements that describe what the organisation wants to accomplish.
Vision to objectives
Organisational Objectives
Team Objectives
How can the manager achieve the organisations mission and objectives?
Consider what skills would be required.
Using design systems
Setting performance standards
Performance measures
Monitoring achievement
Theories and models of management
Frederick W Taylor (1856-1915)
He concluded that the majority of workers put minimial effort into their work if they knew they could easily get away with it. This he attributed with mismanagement of the work.

He proposed a set of techniques which managers could follow to increase productivity. He determined the "best way" to perform a job.

Lets turn to page 73 and 74 to read more.
MacDonalds uses Taylorism approach. They have a systematic approach to the production of fast food. This ensures consistancy between branches, and work can be completed with minimal training. Efficiency is paramount, however, they are likely to have a high turnover of staff. There is little scope for individual innovation.
Henri Fayol
1841 - 1925 unlike Taylor who preferred a "bottom up" approach, Fayol favoured a "top down". He proposed that there were five key functions of management.
Underpinning these functions, he identified and defined 14 principles of management.
Pg 75-77
Peter Drucker 1909 - 2005
Central to Peters philosophy, is that people are an organisations most valuable resource, and that t is the managers job to prepare, develop and enable people to perform.
Key to this theory is the managers effective delegation and setting out the managers key responsibilities.

These elements can be seen on page 78.
Stephen Covey
"The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People".
He basis his theory on adopting the seven habits our personal and professional lives will benefit.
Lets have a look at page 79-90
Others may include:

Nancy Austin
Stephen Covey
Daniel Goleman
Charles Handy
Henry Mitzberg
Tom Peter
Anthony Robbins
Peter Senge
Robert Waterman Jr
Management activity in relation to management theory
Everything we do is virtually governed and regulated by our belief system, values and conditions. Values are essentially standards and conditions that you consider important.
What are values and beliefs?
AH Raymondson 2013
Budgets and associated operational constraints
An essential part of planning and control is having a budget to benchmark against.

Budgets can be used to identify constraints and blockages.

What benefits come from budgetng?
Budgeting forces managers to do better forecasting
Managers should be constantly scanning the business environment to spot changes that will impact upon the business.

Managers must put their predictions into definite and concrete forecasts.
Budgeting motivates managers and employees by providing useful rulers for evaluating performance
The budgeting process can have a good motivational impact by involving managers in the budgeting process and by providing incentives to managers to strive for and achieve the business goals and objectives
Budgeting can assist in the communication between different levels of management
Putting plans and expectations in black and white in financial statements - including definite numbers for forecasts and goals - minimises confusion and creates a kind of common language. Well crafted budgets can help the communication process.
Budgeting is essential in writing a business plan
Monitoring and Measuring Performance Page 86
Quality standards have a set place in performance measurement. Organisations have quality standards to ensure that whatever their business - it consistantly meets the customers requirements.

Most organisations have KPIs - Key performance indicators

What standards do you work towards in your organisation?
The balance scorecard. Lets have a look at page 89 - 90
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