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Terror, Aryanisation and Emigration in Nazi Germany
Transcript of Terror, Aryanisation and Emigration in Nazi Germany
In the years up to 1938 violence was often restrained and the regime would often punished Jews by legislation such as the 1933 Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses.
Some Jews believed that this initial violence was only a temporary feature but these beliefs were wiped away on November the 9th 1938 where Kristallnacht took place.
Jews started to realize the true nature of the Nazi regime and began to emmigrate elsewhere to nearby countries.
As the war neared closer the Nazi policies became much more radical and the scene was set for the next stage of "Hitler's war against the Jews". Nazi Terror, 1933-39 The use of violence in Nazi Germany, 1933-39 flowed according to political circumstances and for most of the time was kept to a minimum, there were however bursts of extreme violence.
Jews were forever under the threat of the Nazi Regime in Germany, they knew that they would be victims to attacks on the streets and would have no where to go for support.
They were also very aware that opponents of the Nazi regime would end up in Concentration Camps.
The SS The SS had been around since 1925 but only became a weapon of terror after the Blood Purge of the SA leadership in the summer of 1934. It was at that point that they took over control of the Concentration Camps.
By 1937, the SS had gained even more power, they had taken control of the police and security services, such as the Gestapo and the regular police.
Through out the history of the Third Reich, the SS continued to expand and grow with a basis of methodical organisation and administrative efficiency.
The SS was under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler, a racist determined to make the SS into a racial elite.
Concentration Camps from 1933 The Boycott of Jewish Shops and Businesses, 1933 On April the 1st 1933, the Nazi regime imposed a boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. Hitler believed that this was justified retaliation against Jewish interests in Germany and abroad who had called for a boycott of German goods.
Gobbels organised an intensive propaganda campaign to increase the impact of the boycott, this was carried out by groups of SA men in brown shirts who stood outside of Jewish shops in order to intimidate possible customers.
Shops were the main target but also other Jewish professionals were affected, such as doctors and lawyers. Court proceedings in Berlin involving Jewish lawyers and judges were disrupted.
The boycott did however fail in some ways, for example it was unclear what was a Jewish or half-Jewish shop or business. Also many people shopped at these Jewish businesses to show disapproval of the boycott.
Overall the boycott only lasted for one day, the SA however wanted it to last indefinitely.
The first Nazi Concentration camp that was set up was KZ Dachau near Munich which was followed by a network of other camps all across Germany.
Prisoners would experience hard labour and "re-education".
After the Night of The Long Knives, the SS became in control of Concentration camps and Theodor Eicke became chief inspector of Concentration camps and the head of "Death's head units", the forces that guarded the camps.
Opponents of the Nazi regime were fragmented and there was a system of repression with many people feeding back information to the Gestapo.
The fear of the camps was more effective than the actual imprisonment. Kristallnacht, November 1938 On the 9th of November 1938, Jewish homes and businesses were looted and damaged, synagogues set alight and thousands of Jews were arrested, beaten up and killed.
Orchestrated by Nazi leadership, the majority of those involved in the violence of Kristallnacht were SA and SS men, instructed to wear uniform.
The murder of Ernst vom Rath, a minor German official in Paris, who was killed by Herschel Grynszpan a Polish Jew, angry about the treatment of his parents by the Nazi regime, presented an opportunity for the Nazis to commit anti-semitic activity.
In the violence, 91 Jews were killed and thousands were injured. Damage to shops and businesses amounted to millions of marks and the SS ordered the police not to intervene with demonstrators, they were instead ordered to place 20,000 to 30,000 Jews in "preventive detention". The fire brigades only watched the event, they did nothing to stop the blazing fires.
The event was not received with universal approval as many people disagreed with what had gone on. The great majority of people also knew that the event was not spontaneous but in fact organised. Aryanisation In his speech at the 1937 Nuremberg Party Rally, Hitler attacked the rights of Jews to own businesses. This increased pressure on Jewish businesses to "voluntarily" sell to Aryan firms at a price far below market value.
In December 1937, Goring used his powers as head of the Four Year Plan to order a reduction in the foreign exchange and raw material quotas for Jewish Firms. Along with that on the 1st of March 1938, Goring banned the granting of public contracts to Jewish businesses. Also, in April 1938, the Decree for the Registration of Jewish Property over the value of 5,000 RM was introduced.
The Nazis intended that Aryanisation would speed up the process of separating the Jews from the mainstream German society, to encourage Jewish emigration and brab valuable assets at a time when the Four Year Plan meant a reduction in the amount of available consumer goods. All of these aims were achieved.
Discrimination Sterilisation Nazi ideology was very obsessed with selective breeding and contained the idea of preventing Jewish blood from mixing with German blood. They also carried out "racial engineering" - purification of the gene pool by sterilising those who the Nazis believed would produce "degenerate offspring".
In July 1933, welfare benefits were introduced to encourage more births amongst those who would produce the offspring that the Nazis desired.
In 1936, X-ray sterilisation of women over 38 began, due to the greater risk of their offspring being mentally and physically handicapped.
At the same time the Nazis stopped abortion and contraception for Aryan women and girls in an attempt to raise the birth rate. Discrimination took place all across Germany and Pro-Nazi activists wanted more anti-Jewish measures.
Some places even put up signs to say that Jews were not welcome in their establishments. Evidence however suggests that these signs were to keep Nazi officials happy rather than keep Jews out.
Many Germans were embarrassed by the discrimination and were reluctant to do such acts as change the family doctor whom they had relied upon for many years. They were also appalled to see literary classics disappear from the local library.
Propaganda and Popular Opinion Nazi propaganda softened the public opinion by highlighting how much money was being "wasted" on mentally ill and "unproductive" people. Such things as films, Erbkrank in 1936 dramatised the supposed links between criminality and "racial degeneracy".
During the Third Reich, 400,000 people were sterilised. As early as July 1933, the Nazis introduced the Law for the prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Progeny.
Decisions about sterilisation often took place at Hereditary Health Courts and took around 10 minutes to complete. Most judges were for sterilisation. The operation would then take place within the next two weeks, forced if necessary.
Early in 1939, the SS began preparations for a secret euthanasia programme that later became known as Aktion T4 - a policy of putting disabled people to death. Emigration By 1938, a total of 150,000 Jews had chosen to leave Germany and as the war approached the Nazi regime looked to take up more radical policies, such as forced emigration.
From 1938 to 1941, emigration to Nazi leadership was seen as the "solution to the Jewish problem". Voluntary Emigration In 1933, 37,000 Jews left Germany including many leading scientists such as Albert Einstein, along with many other cultural figures.
Whether to stay or go was a difficult decision for Jewish people and there were many different views as to whether they should go or not. The Nazis were threatening to confiscate the properties of Jews but at the same time encouraging them to leave at the same time.
For Jewish people that had skills it was a much easier decision, the same went for those who had family members living in other countries.
The Nazis also encouraged Zionists to leave Germany for Palestine, however the majority of German-Jews were not Zionists and did not take the opportunity. Most German-Jews felt especially German and for that reason did not want to leave. They also believed that the Nazi anti-semitism was a surge like before in the past and would soon disappear.
Many Jews who left in 1933 soon returned in 1937 after not finding a better life outside of Germany.
The Reich Office For Jewish Emigration After the Anschluss in March 1938, Reinhard Heydrich used Austria as a laboratory for developing SS policy. The Central Office for Jewish Emigration was set up and 45,000 of Austria's 180,000 Jews had been forced to emigrate.