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Transcript of Classical Mediterranean
in the mediterranean rome, greece
+ Phoenicia From 800 to 600 BCE, the Greek city-states became more powerful, together forming a great Greek civilization. Each had its own system of government. Why?
Two very different examples of city-states were Athens and Sparta. Sparta was led by a strong military oligarchy. Emphasis was placed on physical strength and military training.
There was practically nothing in the way of learning or artistic achievement, but women did have a lot of power in Spartan society, relatively speaking. Athens, on the other hand, experimented with a new form of government called democracy. The high point came under a leader named Pericles.
The political structure was set up so that each citizen could participate in government. Athenians also focused their art and learning around human experience and explored the importance of humankind.
This practice, called Humanism, influenced many other cultures and civilizations. Athenians like Socrates created an age of great Greek philisophical thinking, encouraging their students to question everything in the pursuit of learning and expansion of knowledge. The spartans and athenians put aside their differences to fight against a common enemy, the persian empire. however, when the persians were defeated, athens and sparta's rivalry resurfaced and they fought each other in the peloponnesian war. all athens and sparta did was weaken each other, making the greek city-states an easy target for their northern neighbors, the macedonians. Alexander the great expanded the macedonian empire to include parts of africa and asia. he also spread greek culture and mixed it with these other regions. this spreading and mixing of greek culture is called hellenism, so Alexander's empire is called the hellenistic empire. A Roman monarchy existed around 800 BCE, and by 500 BCE Roman aristicrats had driven it out and replaced it with a republic.
The Roman republic expanded its influence and fought the Punic Wars against the Carthaginians, a Phoenecian empire, from 264-146 BCE. Julius Caesar ended the Roman republic in 45 BCE in attempt to make himself "dictator perpetuus" (dictator for life), but his life didn't last long after that - just a month later he was assassinated, stabbed by conspiring senators. Julius Caesar's grandnephew Octavius seized power in 27 BCE and then went by the name Augustus Caesar. Augustus established the structures of the Roman Empire. pax romana "roman peace" 200 years
27 BCE- 180 CE After 180 CE, a slow decline occurred in the Roman empire. The Roman army was spread thin all over the place. The empire was attacked by Asian Huns and Germanic Goth tribes. More military defenses were needed and to pay for them, taxes were raised and coins were minted. An increased money supply caused inflation.
To make matters worse, Emperor Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium in the east. This further weakened the western empire. The Roman empire in the west ended in 476 ce TRADE ALPHABET Phoenicians greece sparta athens Greek
love of art/philosophy/drama/etc.
women had low status oligarchy
little value on art & learning
women had high status