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Transcript of Australian Identity
What were the events which led to these Stereotypes?
Which events in Australian history have contributed most to the 'typical Australian'? Australian Identity Australian Characteristics Live in the Bush Courageous Drink Alcohol Racist Gold in Australia
Gold in Australia was discovered as early as the 1830s. Explorer Paul de Strezlecki discovered gold in Victoria in 1839. It wasn't until 1851 where a sailor and adventurer named Edward Hargraves was led to the Summerhill Creek by John Lister, who had previously found gold there. After panning for a few hours, Hargraves found a few specks of gold and realised this was his chance to make thousands of dollars. Hargraves traveled to Sydney with his findings. He was willing to reveal the location as long as he would be rewarded regardless of the amount of gold there. He was paid a $500 reward and therefore, he revealed the location. On May 22nd, 1851, the government declared a gold discovery in the Summerhill Creek. Thousands of people with different jobs, such as clerks, laborers and prospectors, immediately left their jobs and came to Summerhill Creek in hope of becoming rich. Summerhill Creek was later renamed the 'Ophir' gold field and was where the first Australian gold rush occurred. Poets and Musicians
Poets and Musicians in Australia contributed greatly to the identity of Australia as many poems and songs spread to other continents where they then portrayed the identity of Australians. Two famous poets and musicians are Henry Lawson and Andrew Barton 'Banjo' Paterson Invention of Aussie Rules
The invention of Australian Football was developed by a group of cricketers, Thomas Wills, his cousin Henry Harrison, W.J. Hammersley and J.B. Thimpson, in order to stay fit during the winter. Thomas Wills was a Rugby Captain in England as well as an astounding cricketer. The Melbourne Football Club was formed on August the 7th in 1858. In the same year, the first recorded football match was between two Melbourne schools, Scotch College and Melbourne Grammar. There was a total of forty players on each team. They used a round ball and the match lasted over five hours. The sport attracted mass amounts of spectators and it still continues to do so today. The Geelong Football Club was formed in 1859 and in 1866 the rules were updated and a competition began. The game is played between two teams of 18 players as well as 3 interchange players. It was and still is a fast paced game which consists of four 20 minute quarters. Each team attempts to force the ball down the field and score a goal. Bushrangers
Bushrangers where people, generally escaped convicts or those who were incapable of making a sustainable living, who would live in the bush, either being supported by certain towns or stealing from settlers. The dominant time of bushrangers were between 1790 and 1860. Some bushrangers built a reputation of stealing from the rich to give to the poor while others where brutal and ruthless, often attacking those returning from the goldfields. A popular slogan for the bushrangers was 'Fight before Surrender'.
Bushrangers became evident as soon as Australia was colonised. Although most of Australia had not been explored, most convicts preferred living in the unknown rather than be living in prison. Some escaped convicts made it as far as China while others joined the Indigenous people. However, most convicts became bushrangers. At first, bushrangers who were caught usually received 50 lashings and be put in prison, however as time continued, the punishment became more predominately death. Immigration and Colonisation
Australia was colonised by the British in 1788 when the First Fleet arrived in Botany Bay. 1,350 people arrived with the First Fleet between January 18th and January 20th. Many of these people were convicts. By the time the Second Fleet arrived in 1790, they had brought critically needed food supplies. Also, many of the convicts from the Second Fleet had died due to malnutrition as well as diseases. A total of 278 convicts died on the Second Fleet compared to the 48 who died on the First Fleet. Most of these convicts where either of British or Irish descent. Some convicts were able to escape while others finished their sentence and began living in Australia. After the discovery of gold in Australia, different types of people began travelling to Australia, some became permanent residences. Between 1851 and 1861, over 600,000 people came to Australia: the majority were from Britain and Ireland, 60,000 came from other areas of Europe, 42,000 came from China, 10,000 came from America and 5,000 came from the South Pacific. By 1901 when Australia federated, there were approximately 4 million residence in Australia and over a quarter of the people where born overseas. While the majority of people where either British or Irish, there were large amounts of Chinese, German and European people. As a result of the large nationalities, the Australian Government decided to declare the 'White Australia' Policy. This banned migration of Asian people for the next 50 years. Also the Federal Parliament passed the Pacific Islands Labourers Act, which prohibited the employment of anyone from the Pacific Islands. During the outbreak of World War 1, migration in Australia ceased. Also previously acceptable migrants in Australia where deemed as 'enemies', specifically the German, Austro-Hungarian, and Turkish migrants. Australia is a very diverse and multicultural country. Australians are known as being carefree, calm and share a love of sport But where and how did these characteristics come about? Many bushrangers had to rely on their gang members in order to survive the bush. Without their complete faith in one-another they would either be caught by the police or failed to survive the bush. Bushrangers both trusted and were loyal to their mates The Eureka Stockade was one of the first events in Australia which conveyed the strength of mateship. As a result of the unfair mining licences, the miners all bonded together against a common enemy. Regardless of the outcome, the diggers united together and were able to succeed in their plans As many bushrangers were forced into the bush to survive, Australians are portrayed as people who live in the bush but are capable of living a sustainable life Many Australian poets wrote about their experiences in the bush as well as the landscape of Australia. Several of these poems became famous outside Australia therefore conveying Australia as a highly vegetated area with harsh living conditions Despite being colonised by Britain, the Australian Identity is conveyed as having a love for Australian Football. In addition sports such as Cricket, in which Australia is able to compete with England, Australian Football was developed to emphasize the Australian Identity and show the differences between Australia and Britain After the goldrush in Australia, the Australian Government developed the 'White Australian' Policy in order to limit the amount of migrants coming to Australia. This exclusion was a result of greed and financial stability hence emphasizing the selfishness and racism of this event. This event has now been reflected on the Australian Identity During the First World War, many migrants already living in Australia was deemed as 'enemies' despite having very few connections with War back in their own countries. Stereotyping and prejudice was a result of migration and hence conveying Australians as racist Many escaped convicts conveyed became bushrangers to flee from the police. The majority of the escaped convicts had very little knowledge about surviving in the bush. Bushrangers were forced to show immense courage in order to survive hence portraying Australians as courageous During the Eureka Stockade, most miners had very little knowledge about taking up arms, therefore the fight against the Government was particularly challenging. Despite the police having some form of training in taking up arms, the miners were courageous regardless of the outcome. This event has reflected Australians as courageous As a result of migration, the Australian identity was impacted dramatically. Many of the migrants were Irish and German who are known for being heavy drinkers. Upon migrating to Australia, these drinking habits were adopted by the Australians and over time, it became a very significant part of Australian Identity During the goldrush in Australia, many different migrants came to Australia, some coming temporarily while others stayed permanently. The migrants came from areas such as Europe, Asia and some parts of America. As a result of this migration, the Australian Identity has shown to be multicultural During the colonisation of Australia, British as well as Irish people came to Australia to settle. Overtime, more migrants from areas such as Germany, Austro-Hungary and China came and settled in Australia. Eventually, these people expanded within Australia, therefore portraying Australia as a multicultural country Although the Australian Identity has changed significantly over time, it has not stopped developing yet. Overtime, the Australian Identity will continue to change through different aspects. However, it is impossible to predict how this Identity will change All we can do is wait... Ophir - First Gold Field in Australia The Eureka Stockade
More goldfields where later discovered in New South Wales and Victoria. This meant thousands of people left work in hope of finding riches. As a result, wages increased, trade decreased, food prices increased dramatically and ultimately, the Australian economy changed dramatically. As the news of the gold rush spread, mass amounts of people from China, America and Europe came to Australia in hope of finding gold. At the beginning of 1851, Victoria had a population on roughly 97,000 however within a year, the population increased to over 168,000 people. In 1854, there were over 25,000 diggers of many nationalities on the Ballarat goldfields. Due to the struggling Australian economy, yet an immense people on the goldfields, newly elected Governor Hotham set up a mining licence which forced all those on the goldfield to pay for the privilege of being on the goldfields, regardless of them finding any gold. This led to anger amongst the diggers as they found the licence unfair and far to expensive. On the 11th of November 1854, 10,000 diggers demanded the licence be abolished as well as allow them to have the right to vote however, they were rejected by the Ballarat Reform League. This led to a majority of the diggers publically burning their licences on the 29th of November. On the same day, the famous Southern Cross Flag was developed and was later known as the Eureka Flag. On the 30th of November, the Stockade was constructed which was made of wooden barricades enclosing roughly an acre of the goldfields. Within the Stockade, 500 diggers had decided to defend their stockade until the licence was abolished. On the 3rd of December, authorities ordered an attack on the stockade and the diggers were quickly outnumbered. Within less than an hour, the battle was over with the authorities winning. Twenty-two diggers and five troops were killed and the Eureka Stockade flag was claimed by authorities as a battle memento. Eventually, by 1855, the Gold Fields Commission accepted most of the diggers demands. Diggers where given a right to vote and the miners licence was removed but was replaced with an export fee. The Eureka Stockade Flag Andrew Barton 'Banjo' Paterson (1864 - 1941)
Banjo Paterson was born on the 17th of February 1864 and was the eldest of seven children. He was the son of Andrew Bogle Paterson and Rose Isabella who migrated to Australia in 1850. He was educated at a bush school but then studied at Sydney Grammar School. While studying at Sydney Grammar School, he lived with his grandmother, Emily Barton. Paterson's grandmother and father shared a love of poetry, with his father publishing several poems in the 'Bulletin'. Paterson first started writing poems as a law student and was a regular writer for the 'Bulletin'. In 1895 his ballad, 'Man From Snowy River' and his song/poem 'Waltzing Matilda' gained him celebrity status back at England. He then worked for the Sydney Morning Herald and the Melbourne Age as a war correspondent. Paterson wrote about major accounts in the Second Boer War. Eventually he became an editor of the Sydney Evening News but he still continued to write poetry. When World War 1 broke out he sailed back to England but was unsuccessful in applying for employment as a war correspondent. Returning to Australia in 1915, he then travelled to Africa, China and Egypt as a vet. During this entire time, he continued to write poems. Paterson resumed journalism at Sydney Mail, Smith's Weekly and the Sydney Sportsman. He was now relatively famous meaning most his poems were assembled in a book named Collected Verse. In 1930 he retired from journalism but continued to write poems as well as become a radio broadcaster for the ABC. Henry Lawson (1867 - 1922)
Henry Lawson was born on the 17th of June 1867 in New South Wales. His mother was Louisa Lawson and she was the editor and owner of the Darwin Journal. His father was Niels Larsen who was a Norwegian sailor but settled in Australia when Henry Lawson was born. Henry suffered an ear infection when he was seven, leaving him partly deaf. Eventually, he lost his ability to hear at the age of fourteen. Much of his work was based on the Australian Bush and one of his most famous poems, Past Carin', depicted the Australian lifestyle. Despite living in the city, Lawson was able to accurately described the bush. Later in his life, he became an alcoholic but still continued write. His addiction was said to influence his writing and he eventually became very famous in Australia. Despite his fame, he was a beggar on the streets of Sydney. He was gaoled at Darlinghurst Gaol for over intoxication as well as refusal to pay alimony. His experiences in gaol continued to haunt him as written in his poem 'One Hundred and Three' - his prison number. His death was in Sydney in 1922. His funeral was attended by the Prime Minister W. M. Hughes as well as thousands of citizens Past Carin'
Now up and down the siding brown
The great black crows are flyin',
And down below the spur, I know,
Another `milker's' dyin';
The crops have withered from the ground,
The tank's clay bed is glarin',
But from my heart no tear nor sound,
For I have gone past carin' --
Past worryin' or carin',
Past feelin' aught or carin';
But from my heart no tear nor sound,
For I have gone past carin'. Through Death and Trouble, turn about,
Through hopeless desolation,
Through flood and fever, fire and drought,
And slavery and starvation;
Through childbirth, sickness, hurt, and blight,
And nervousness an' scarin',
Through bein' left alone at night,
I've got to be past carin'.
Past botherin' or carin',
Past feelin' and past carin';
Through city cheats and neighbours' spite,
I've come to be past carin'. Our first child took, in days like these,
A cruel week in dyin',
All day upon her father's knees,
Or on my poor breast lyin';
The tears we shed -- the prayers we said
Were awful, wild -- despairin'!
I've pulled three through, and buried two
Since then -- and I'm past carin'.
I've grown to be past carin',
Past worryin' and wearin';
I've pulled three through and buried two
Since then, and I'm past carin'. 'Twas ten years first, then came the worst,
All for a dusty clearin',
I thought, I thought my heart would burst
When first my man went shearin';
He's drovin' in the great North-west,
I don't know how he's farin';
For I, the one that loved him best,
Have grown to be past carin'.
I've grown to be past carin'
Past lookin' for or carin';
The girl that waited long ago,
Has lived to be past carin'. My eyes are dry, I cannot cry,
I've got no heart for breakin',
But where it was in days gone by,
A dull and empty achin'.
My last boy ran away from me,
I know my temper's wearin',
But now I only wish to be
Beyond all signs of carin'.
Past wearyin' or carin',
Past feelin' and despairin';
And now I only wish to be
Beyond all signs of carin' Early Years of Australian Football Bold Jack Donohoe Bushrangers Robbing Group of Miners Between 1850 and 1860, there was a large amount of gold digging. This resulted in many bushrangers to stop travelers and ask them if they were 'going up' or 'coming down'. Those who were 'coming down' were often tied to a tree while all their possessions and gold cheques where stolen. The bushrangers would then travel to Melbourne to cash their newly acquired cheques. A famous gold miner bushranger was Black Douglas who was a Mulatto Indian who robbed travelers between Bendigo and Melbourne. His usual form of robbery was to steal from the diggers tents during the day and rob the stores during the night. Eventually, the diggers became aggravated with Black Douglas and decided to end his thieving. Over 200 miners surrounded his hideout and burnt it. Black Douglas was overpowered after being wounded and was then accompanied by the miners as he was brought to Maryborough to be sentenced. A famous Bushranger was 'Bold' Jack Donohoe. After being transported to Botany Bay from Dublin in 1825, Donohoe paired up with two Irish convicts and began robbing a local farm near Sydney. He escaped his hanging after fleeing from court and he then formed a larger gang made up of Irish and English convicts. His gang often stole from the rich to give to the poor. An example of this is when robbing a farmhouse, he noticed the owner was the Explorer of Charles Sturt and as a result, he returned all the farmers possessions. Donohoe often helped ex-convicts and sympathetic settlers. Newspaper reports between 1827 and 1830 often described him as being 'remarkably clean' business men who dressed relatively formally. He often wore a black hat, a blue cloth coat and laced boots. Eventually he was captured and shot on September 1st 1830. Prior to being captured, the troopers reported Donohoe throwing his hat in the air and saying 'Come on … we're ready'. The first known Bushranger was John Caesar, a former West Indian Negro Slave. He escaped into the bush in 1790 with a musket where he joined up with several other escaped convicts. He was able to survive the bush by hunting and fishing as well as receiving food from sympathetic settlers. Eventually, Governor John Hunter offered a five gallon rum reward resulting in his capture and death. Arrival of First Fleet in Australia Pictures
Campfire Journal, 2012, Flags, Viewed 21/10/12
Clattery Machinery, 2006, Banjo Paterson, Viewed 21/10/12
150 Years of Australian Football, 2010, Football Origins, Viewed 21/10/12
Jen Willetts, Picture Date Unknown, Bushrangers, Viewed 21/10/12
NSW State Library, 2012, The First Fleet, Viewed 21/10/12
Vicnet, 2001, Historical Timeline, Viewed 16/10/12
Convict Creations, 2006, Drinking Etiquette, Viewed 19/10/12
Australian Government, 2011, More than 60 years of Post-War Migration, Viewed 19/10/12
Wallis and Matilda, 2000, Waltzing Matilda, Viewed 20/10/12
Australian Government, 2010, Eureka Stockade, Viewed 20/10/12
Gold Oz, 2006, The Gold Rush, Viewed 20/10/12
SBS, Written Date Unknown, Gold, Viewed 20/10/12
Historia, Written Date Unknown, Andrew Barton Paterson, Viewed 20/10/12
Famous Poets and Poems, 2006, Henry Lawson Biography, Viewed 20/10/12
Kid Cyber, 2007, Australian Rules Football, Viewed 20/10/12
Australian Government, 2011, Early Australian Bushrangers, Viewed 20/10/12
Migration Heritage, 2010, Australian Migration History, Viewed 20/10/12
Youtube, 2010, Waltzing Matilda, Viewed 20/10/12
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuYfawy8xwla Bibliography Andy Nguyen