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Equilibrium in Carbonated Beverages

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Aaron McLelland

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Equilibrium in Carbonated Beverages

Work Cited Videos Klassen, E. (2012). The Effects of Altitude. Retrieved from http://www.pilotfriend.com/aeromed/medical/alt_phys.htm
 
Hafling, J. (2012). Top 10 Most Popular Soda Brands. Retrieved from http://terrifictop10.wordpress.com/tag/dr-pepper-snapple-group/
 
Mugwabe, L. (2012). Characteristics of the Equilibrium State. Retrieved from http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Chemical_Equilibr um/Characteristics_Of_The_Equilibrium_State
 
Turner, E. (2012). Joseph Priestley, 1733-1804. Retrieved from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/priestley.html
 
Whitmore, J. (2012). Chemical Equilibrium. Retrieved from http://www.chem.uiuc.edu/rogers/text13/Tx134/tx134fr.html Work Cited Pictures Cont. Alisher, R. (2012). Currency Money Signs. Retrieved from
http://www.free-stockphotos.com/download-free-earth-cash-money-signs- pictures/

Avery, M. (2012). Unusual uses for alka-seltzer. Retrieved from http://www.diylife.com/2010/06/24/8-unusual-uses-for-alka-seltzer/
 
Bergstrun, R. (2012). Carbonated Water Sources and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.aquatechnology.net/carbonation.html
 
Claire, B. (2012). Explanation of Le Chatelier's Principle. Retrieved from http://www.adichemistry.com/physical/equilibrium/le-chatelier/le-chatelier principle.html

Daley, T. (2012). Temperature, Heat, and Expansion. Retrieved from http://hendrix2.uoregon.edu/~imamura/102/section3/chapter15.html Work Cited Pictures Clark , J. (2002). Le Chatelier's Principle. Retrieved from http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/equilibria/lechatelier.html
Ladon, L. (2001). Chemical Equilibrium - solubility. Retrieved from http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/solprod.html
Meheen, D. (2012). Carbonation Demystified. BrewersAssociation. Retrieved from http://www.meheen-mfg.com/CarbonationDemystified.pdf
Plambeck , J. (1995). Henry’s law and the Solubility of Gases. Retrieved from http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C09/C09Links/www.chem.ualberta.ca/cou rses/plambeck/p101/p01182.htm
Richardson, G. (2012). Effervescence. Retrieved from http://alkaseltzer.com/as/effervescence.html
Roberts, D. (2004). Carbon Dioxide - carbonic acid equilibrium. Retrieved from http://ion.chem.usu.edu/~sbialkow/Classes/3600/Overheads/Carbonate/CO 2.html
Smith, R. (2012). Chemical Equilibrium with soda water. Roseville: Foothills. Retrieved from http://www.pasco.com/chemistry/experiments/online/chemical- equilibrium-with-soda-water.cfm Work Cited (Hafling 2012) With out these properties there would be no such thing as that thirst quenching, refreshing Dr. Pepper after marking all those assignments (Klassen 2012) Solubility is important for the system to reach equilibrium because if the CO2 cannot dissolve in the water then the CO2 pressure would be greater in the air above the soda than in the solution (Roberts, 2012)

This would defy Henry’s Law and the soda will not reach equilibrium Solubility of CO2 CO2 gas solubility increases as the soda temperature decreases

CO2 gas solubility decreases as the soda temperature increases

Therefore, the colder the soda, the more readily CO2 is absorbed into solution

This results in quicker carbonation and more efficient use of CO2 (Roberts 2012) Solubility of CO2 The gas pressure in a coke bottle located in the air section at the top of the bottle must equal the dissolved gas pressure of CO2 in the solution of the bottle. (Richardson 2012)

If it isn't equal, then the gas would bubble out of the liquid until an equilibrium has re-established. Henry’s Law and Effervescence The increase of air in the pop bottle means less pressure of gas because of the increased size of the container (Plambeck 2012)
As the pressure of the gas above decreases so does the pressure of CO2(g) in the soda as Henry’s law states
This lowers the equilibrium value Henry’s Law and Soda The amount of pressure of CO2(g) in the soda is equal to the pressure of CO2(g) in the gas (the air in the can) associated with the solution (Plambeck 2012)
This is why after many volumes of the beverage has been taken out the pop bottle the soda looses its “fizz” Henry’s Law (Daley 2012) Le Châtelier’s Principle- Video An ↑ concentration of H2CO3(aq) will result in the reverse production of reactants
When more products are added, Le Châtelier’s principle states that the increased amount of products will result in the formation of reactants to equalize and form a new equilibrium Le Châtelier’s Principle- H2CO3(aq) Addition An ↑ concentration of CO2 will result in a higher formation of products
When there are more reactants, equilibrium shifts to resist this change and the formation of products from these reactants will equalize and obtain a new equilibrium Le Châtelier’s Principle- CO2 Addition The temperature affects the equilibrium of the state of carbonated drinks (Clark 2012)

A higher temperature increases the amount of products made in the reaction because the reaction is exothermic

Therefore to achieve equilibrium the amount of products need to decrease and reform into reactants

In this case more CO2(g) and H2O(l) will be produced Le Châtelier’s Principle- Temperature Using the following equation, this is how Le Châtelier's applies to carbonation:

CO2(g) + H2O(l) ↔ H2CO3(aq) + 42.1kJ (Daley 2012) In the equation representing the carbonation process: CO2(g) + H2O(l) ↔ H2CO3(aq), phase equilibrium is important in maintaining equilibrium because the reverse reaction must be able to change from an aqueous solution to a gas and then a liquid, at the same rate that the synthesis reaction of CO2(g) and H2O(l) forms an aqueous solution (Smith 2012) Phase Equilibrium in Soda pictures from: (Daley 2012) In phase equilibrium particles in different states are gaining and losing kinetic energy such that they are changing from one state to another, while equal number are moving in the reverse direction. (Smith2012) Phase Equilibrium Overview: Carbonation Process In order for the carbonation process to work certain factors must culminate in order for the solution to reach equilibrium such as:
Phase Equilibrium
Le Châteliers Principle
Henry’s Law
Effervescence
Solubility of CO2 Overview (Turner 2012) Joseph Priestley Carbonation of beverages were discovered by Joseph Preistley and Kristan Edwards in 1767
In 1851 Canada Dry’s ginger ale was the first carbonated beverage sold in mass quantities to the public (Meheen 2012)
In 1885 Charles Alderton invented Dr. Pepper  The History of Carbonated Drinks (Bergstrun 2012) How Soda is Carbonated (Hafling 2012) In a carbonated drink equilibrium is reached as:
It is a closed system (sealed container)
Macroscopic properties are constant (colour)
Sufficiently reversible
Can be approached from either direction Equilibrium in Soda The carbonation system is a technical system that is used in industrial processes
The carbonation process is an example of continuous processing because there is a continuous flow of water replacing the carbonated water (Ladon 2012) The Carbonation Process (Meheen 2012) It comes down to a simple chemical process called carbonation made possible through equilibrium The Carbonation Process (Alisher 2012) Have you ever wondered why carbonated beverages are a multi-billion dollar industry?
Why it’s the type of drink everyone prefers? Why? (Avery, 2012) Effervescence Henry’s Law- Video (Claire 2012) Le Châtelier’s principle states that any change in a system at equilibrium results in a shift of the equilibrium in the direction which minimizes the change (Clark 2012) Le Châtelier’s Principle pictures from (Whitmore 2012) Equilibrium is a state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced in a chemical reaction (Ladon 2012) What is Equilibrium? Pictures above from: (Hafling 2012) Carbon Dioxide Equilibrium in Solution

By: Aaron McLelland, Darek Blackwell & Jack Cao Equilibrium in Carbonated Drinks (Mugwabe 2012) The principle that the amount of a gas dissolved at equilibrium in a given quantity of a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid (Plambeck 2012) Henry’s Law Le Châtelier's Priciple Henry's Law Diagram ` Devarela, N. (Performer) (2007). Henr'ys law [Web]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yU5y-cFXoooo (Devarela, 2012) Surf, F. (Producer) (2012). The chemistry behind soda making [Theater]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mo2ZpfAO_lEEEE (Surf, 2012) Hafling 2012) The End (Hafling 2012) (Avery, 2012)
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