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Reptile and Amphibian BIODIVERSITY CRISIS!

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by

Jennifer Dever

on 18 April 2017

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Transcript of Reptile and Amphibian BIODIVERSITY CRISIS!

Rattle snake round-ups legal?
Turtles, crocodiles, snakes, amphibians all exploited
Each year, more than 250,000 sea turtles are accidentally captured, injured or killed by U.S. fishermen.
Habitat loss/ degradation big problem!
Overharvesting for food/products
Snakes get a bad rap - myths justify persecution
"Reptiles are harvested and traded around the world for their skins or shells, their eggs, meat, and for the pet trade. Overharvesting of the Kemp’s ridley sea turtle’s eggs nearly led to its extinction, and today it is still an endangered species. In the U.S., box turtles are being collected at unsustainable levels for the overseas pet trade. Some reptile skins—such as crocodile, python and monitor lizard—are highly prized as exotic leathers."
http://rattlesnakeroundup.net/
$1.25
Tuesday, April 18, 2017
Vol XCIII, No. 311
31% of Amphibians and 21% of Reptiles are threatened with extinction (2016 Red List)
BIODIVERSITY CRISIS!!!
Accidents, purposeful introductions both have lead to species loss
Invasive species can decimate natives!
EXOTICS CAN:
Out-compete natives
Predators of natives
Carry disease, infecting natives
Herp Conservation
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/31/us/rattlesnake-wranglers-armed-with-gasoline.html?_r=0
27 Reptiles and 33 Amphibians are EXTINCT!
Going, going, GONE!
"Habitat loss—due to destruction, fragmentation or degradation of habitat—is the primary threat to the survival of wildlife ." WWF
The range of potential habitat stressors is very large and includes factors such as chemical pollution, noise pollution, pathogens and disease, physical damage to the habitat, tourism, and war-related activities.
Saint Croix Racer
Martinique Giant Amevia
Jamaica Giant Galliwasp
Round Island Burrowing Boa
Pinta Isand Tortoise
West African Mud Turtle
Big Bend Mud Turtle
http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct/lists/amphibians.htm
http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct/lists/reptiles.htm
http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/cane-toad/
The Golden Toad, extinct
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans
has been responsible for severe declines in salamander populations across Belgium and the Netherlands
Chytrid
Fungus (
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
- Bd
) causes
Chytridiomycosis
Attacks keratin in epidermis, disrupting respiration (causes mass die-offs)
Infection occurs in ventral skin & pelvic area causing metabolic disturbances & death; Responsible for the
catastrophic decline
of over
200
species so far
Pattern: High mortalities in stream breeders at moderate to high altitudes, e.g.
Atelopus
genus in Central America
Originated in Africa, transmitted via zoospores under wet, cooler conditions
Carried via species exported globally for human consumption/use

CLIMATE CHANGE wreaks havoc with herps.
Emerging Disease resulting in major amphibian extinctions.
for more info see: http://www.amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html
Breeding times changing
Altered sex ratios for crocs & turtles
Foraging times becoming more limited
Climate and Chytrid (change helping out Bd)
for sale
99% of wetlands, 40% of tropical forests gone!
We are at the center of synergystic effects
Full transcript