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HHD Unit 4 AOS2
Transcript of HHD Unit 4 AOS2
Ch 10 - Australian & International Aid Agencies
Ch 11 - Addressing Global Health Issues
Mean years of schooling
Expected years of schooling
Sustainable Human Development
Interrelationships between Global Health, Human Development & Sustainability
'Assistance given to countries or communities in the event of a crisis for the development of long term sustainable improvements'
10.2 - What is Aid?
- The interrelationships between health, human development and sustainability to produce sustainable human development in a global context.
- Different types of aid, including emergency aid, bilateral and multilateral, non-government organisation aid, and how they achieve global health and sustainable human development.
- The role of the UN in providing global health and sustainable human development through the following areas of action: world peace and security, human rights, humanitarian assistance and social and economic development.
- The agenda (priorities) of the WHO in promoting global health and sustainable human development.
- The priorities of the Australian government's aid initiatives and the role it plays in developing programs to promote global health and sustainable human development.
- The role of non-government organisations based in Australia in promoting global health and sustainable human development.
- Programs focusing on literacy, food security, HIV/AIDS and malaria, immunisation, safe water and sanitation in terms of:
- Reasons for each program
- Types of aid involved in the programs
- Implementation of the programs
- Their contribution to the achievement of sustainable human development
- Identify and explain different types of aid and evaluate their contribution towards achieving global health and sustainable human development.
- Describe the role of international and Australian government and non-government agencies and organisations in promoting global health and sustainable development
- Interpret and analyse data
- Analyse and evaluate aid programs in terms of the elements of sustainability and their contribution to health and sustainable human development
- Analyse the interrelationships between health, human development and sustainability in a range of scenarios
'Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.'
'The health of populations in a worldwide context that goes beyond the perspectives and concerns of individual countries. Global health is about an international collaborative approach to achieving equity in health for people worldwide.'
'Creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative lives according to their needs and interests.
It is about expanding people's choices and enhancing capabilities, having access to knowledge, health and a decent standard of living, and participating in the life of their community and decisions affecting their lives.'
of Human Development
is measured by
is measured by
Mean Years of Schooling
Expected Years of Schooling
Standard of Living
is measured by
GNI (Gross National Income)
'Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' (UN, 1992)
Capacity of future generations to earn an income and the efficient use of resources to allow economic growth over time
Future generations having the same or improved access to social resources such as human rights, political stability and education.
Natural environment is utilised in a way that will preserve resource into the future
Sustainable Human Development
'Ensuring that future generations also have the skills, knowledge and resources to achieve their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accordance with their needs and interests'
HEALTH + HD + SUSTAINABILITY
Global Health & Human Development
Child malnutrition in the developing world increases susceptibility to illness in a population potentially decreasing life expectancy globally (global health). The susceptibility to disease also reduces their capacity to attend school/work and as a result reduces their chance of reaching full potential negatively impacting on development.
Social Sustainability - Global Health - Human Development
If more children can be provided with education and adequate nutrition they can pass this information and behaviors on to their children therefore increasing social sustainability and reducing their risk of malnutrition, allowing them to live a long and health life increasing life expectancy globally (global health). The decreased malnutrition increases the opportunity for more children t grow and develop and reach their full potential (human development)
Economic Sustainability - Human Development
If more of the population have the ability to work and earn an income within the community, the countries GNI will increase, leading to economic growth positively impacting economic sustainability. Due to the increased economic growth, countries have a greater ability to provide resources (eg. healthcare) hence allowing people to receive treatment when needed therefore increasing the ability to live a long and healthy life and raise life expectancy (human development). As the cycle continues, human development becomes sustainable.
Environmental Sustainability - Global Health - Human Development
Ensuring the population has sustainable access to safe water (Environmental Sustainability), will reduce the risk of water born diseases (eg. diarrhea) and as a result allows them to raise life expectancy globally (global health) and increase ability to attend school and live productive and creative lives (Human Development),
Emergency/ Humanitarian Aid
Non Government Organisations Aid (NGO's)
'Rapid assistance given to people or countries in immediate distress to relieve suffering during and after human-made emergencies such as wars, and natural disasters such as floods, tsunamis or earthquakes. Emergency aid also be called 'humanitarian aid'.
'The provision of aid from the government of one country to the government of another country.'
'Aid provided through an international organisation, such as the World Bank, United Nations or World Health Organization. Multilateral aid combines donations from a number of countries and then distributes them to the recipients.' (VCAA)
'NGOs take different approaches to aid, which includes specific projects or programs, emergency aid, volunteering, education and development. The aid provided by NGOs often focuses on communities.'
What does emergency aid involve?
- Short Term
- Includes provisions of shelter, food & medicines and/or health personnel, or emergency workers
- Aims to respond quickly and effectively address needs of affected community
- Provided by Gov, NGOs, WHO, UN etc.
May range from small community based projects such as immunisation programs , to large regional development schemes, such as the provisions of a water treatment plant and other infrastructure projects.
This aid can attract criticism as the donating country may gain benefits to their economy due to giving goods and services.
Sometimes aid given to countries may not be used for its intended purpose due to corruption.
- Aid is for large scale projects which include emergency relief and funding for transitional issues such as global warming and control of disease, and major infrastructure projects such as building roads. (Promoting Sustainable Human Development)
- Contributes to achievement of of global health.
**Australia supporting the WFP to fight global hunger by ensuring everyone has access to food needed.
**Australia contributes to the World Bank who provide microfinance loans to boost income and establish education/healthcare strategies.
- NGOs are a not-for-profit organisation
- Work to promote health status and HD
- Aid focused on meeting basic health needs, community development and participation and emergency assistance
- Not funded by the government
eg: World Vision, Oxfam, Red Cross
The Australian Government's Aid Priorities
KK - Understanding the priorities of the Australian government's aid initiatives and the role it plays in developing programs to promote global health and sustainable human development
DFAT - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
- Australian government's overseas aid is managed by DFAT
- Aims to assists developing countries to reduce poverty and promote sustainable human development
- Focuses on Asia-Pacific region, in which 2/3's of the worlds poor reside
- Provides funds to multilateral, bilateral and NGO's
- Provides goods and services to those in need following natural disasters
Priorities of Australia's
Infrastructure, trade facilitation and international competitiveness
Agriculture, fisheries and water
Education & Health
Gender equality and empowering women and girls
Effective governance; policies, institutions and functioning economies
Building resilience; humanitarian assistance, disaster risk reduction and social protection
These priorities all contribute to the breaking in the cycle of poverty in developing countries. By addressing these priorities, changes can be implemented that will promote global health and sustainable human development
Complete Question 4 on page 381 of text.
-Copy and complete the table for the six priorities of Aus Aid.
10.4 - The United Nations
10.5 - World Health Organisation (WHO)
What is the United Nations?
Organisations involved within the UN
The Role of the UN (Action Areas)
- International Organisation whose purpose is to 'bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well being of all people.'
- Established in 1945 and currently has 190 member countries.
- All countries (members) must follow the UN Charter.
- The UN is made up of a range of agencies, each having a specific focus in promoting sustainable human development.
The UN has many roles including a commitment to peace and security, human rights, providing humanitarian assistance, and economic and social development
Outline one way in which the United Nations works in each of these areas.
Select one action area and explain how it can promote global health
Peace & Security
promoting social & economic development
Specific examples of how the un promote peace & security
- issue a cease fire
- send peacekeepers to resolve conflict
- establish a blockade
- address hazards left over by conflict eg.landmines
Specific examples of how the un provide humanitarian assistance
- emergency food and water drops after natural disaster
- provide shelter for displaced humans
Specific examples of how the un promote human rights
- created the universal declaration of human rights
- created the convention of rights of child
- unicef assists to ensure childrens rights are upheld by ensuring children are receiving education/ healthcare etc.
-undp assists in achieving the sdgs
Specific examples of how the un promote social & Economic development
-undp work with other governments to promote employment, trade, education etc
- world bank works with other governments and businesses to provide loans, education etc
- un established programs targeting malnutrition
- undp provides grants for better infrastructure
Providing Global Health & Sustainable Human Development
- The WHO is a branch of the United Nations concerned primarily with promoting global health.
- Established in 1984
- WHO works to provide leadership in engaging and supportive countries to respond to a range of global health issues.
- Work is complex and challenged by many political, economic, social and environmental factors.
The WHO released 6 new priorities for agenda in 2014- 2019.
The WHO consider these issues of the greatest importance to achieving global health and SHD.
10.6 Australian NGOs
- Millions of NGOs worldwide
- Can provide assistance to groups within this country as well as providing aid to overseas
- Many agencies rely on funding from the Australian Government through its aid program
- Aid provided by NGOs is usually to smaller projects and community based.
- Works with children, families and communities
around the world to overcome poverty and injustice.
- World Vision Australia was established in 1966
- Work is funded through:
- child sponsorship
- 40 hour famine
- emergency relief appeals
- corporate support
- Also receives funds through:
- UN Agencies
Official Development Assitance (ODA
Non-Government Organisation (Aid)
Sustainable Human Development
Australian Red Cross
Water & Sanitation
Social & Economic Development
World Food Programme (WFP)
World Health Organisation (WHO)
Non Communicable Diseases
- UNDP largest provider of grants for SHD worldwide
- Global health issues are harder to address when countries are in poverty. UN works collaboratively to eliminate poverty - reduce incidence and prevalence of disease
- UNICEF works for long term survival of children through variety or programs
KK - The role of the UN in providing global health and sustainable human development through the following areas of action: world peace and security, human rights, humanitarian assistance and social and economic development.
Complete Case Study
'Ebola & Health Systems'
Computer Research Activity
For each of the 3 NGO's you must be able to:
- Describe the NGO
- Identify how it is funded
- Identify various locations of where they work
- Identify & describe a specific project the NGO runs
- Explain how the program promotes global health
- Explain how the program promotes sustainable human development
- Describe 2 elements of sustainability evident within the program
*There is an example and template table located on moodle for you to use.
Our mission is to be a Christian organisation that engages people to eliminate poverty and its causes.
-Largest overseas aid and humanitarian organisation
World Vision works with all people to create change through:
- Community Development
- Humanitarian & Emergency relief
- Tackling injustice through policy change, education & advocacy
Sample World Vision Program
- Food For Work
Unfortunately, the battle against famine and hunger isn’t over yet.
Millions of people are still deprived of food and at risk of malnutrition.
1 of 6
One out of six children (roughly 100 million) in developing countries is underweight.
primary school-age children
attend classes hungry across the developing world.
250,000 to 500,000 children go blind every year from vitamin A deficiency.
Let’s be honest, hunger doesn’t sound as serious. For those living above the poverty line, hunger is just something you feel before dinner.
But for many who live in developing nations, hunger means a potentially fatal lack of nutrients. These deficiencies lead to impaired cognitive development in children, stillbirths and congenital abnormalities. They also reduce the body’s capacity to fight disease.
The most common cause of hunger is insufficient money. Even in famine zones, those with money often have easier access to food.
Regions like the desert states of the Gulf are less fertile than any African country. But because they have money to sustain themselves, they aren’t as hungry.
The second major cause of hunger is a lack of fertile land to grow food on.
Africa’s soil, for example, absorbs little water and hardens when exposed to sun and air. This makes it almost impossible to cultivate.
Many factors contribute to land infertility including drought, poor growing conditions, deforestation and farmers not having the opportunity to learn modern farming methods.
There’s enough food in the world to feed everyone. But control over resources and income is based on military, political and economic power that the minority hold. Those without equal fortune get left behind.
Early and carefully planned intervention is the key to preventing famine and alleviating hunger ...
... and World Vision is always breaking new ground when it comes to short-term AND long-term solutions.
World Vision is the largest non-government partner of the UN’s World Food Programme, distributing more emergency food and supplies than any other non-government organisation (NGO).
We deliver food to people at immediate risk of malnutrition, while working with communities to strengthen their long-term capabilities to farm and gain income.
We teach farmers how to nurture land, prevent soil degradation, and increase sustainability and productivity. We also supply them with better seeds and cutting-edge farming techniques.
We work in over 55 countries, helping to create resilient communities who can sustainably use their local natural resources and adapt with change as it occurs.
Our 40 Hour Famine program raises money and awareness once a year for the problems we fight so hard to eradicate.
And our farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR) program was behind Africa’s largest environmental change in over a century. The program reforests arid desert into fertile land with enormous crop-growing potential.
Needless to say, World Vision takes hunger and famine prevention seriously.
How FFW Program promotes Global Health:
Providing food for completing work on development projects may reduce the risk of malnutrition, starvation and nutrient deficiencies, potentially reducing global morbidity rates, positively contributing to global health.
How FFW Program promotes Sustainable Human Development:
By having access to quality nutritious foods in exchange for work, individuals are less likely to be malnourished. As a result of having access to nutritious foods and not being malnourished and individual is more likely to maintain a stable healthy weight, positively improving physical health (1 Mark).With improved physical health, they are more likely to live a long and healthy life raising life expectancy ad positively impacting the health dimension of human development (1 Mark). The skills they gain from the work projects can also hopefully be passed on to current and future generations promoting social sustainability (1 Mark) . With physically healthier people due to accessing food people are more likely to go to work and lead productive and creative lives in accordance with their needs and interests.People are also working and earning an income, improving their standard of living, raising GNI and increasing overall human development (1 Mark). With higher average incomes, future generations have more ability to earn income too and improve the economy, thus improving economic sustainability (1 Mark). Overall the food for work program means current and future generations are more likely to experience good health and develop to their full potential and lead productive lives in accordance with their needs and interests, positively contributing to sustainable human development.
Other World Vision Programs
- Chikomeni, Zambia: Food Security Project
- Baucau, Timor-Leste: Economic Development Project
- Solomon Islands: Education Project
- Mongolia: Schools WASH Project
- Delhi, India: HIV and AIDS Mitigation Project
- Established in 1914
- Operates in 189 countries across the globe
- Part of International Red Cross & Red Crescent Movement
Aims - to improve the lives of vulnerable people in Australia and internationally by mobilising the power of humanity
Works in many countries, with a main focus in the Asia-Pacific Region
Red Cross - What do we do?
Placing people at the heart of our international relief work, we help to build resilient communities by strengthening our partner's ability to prepare for, respond to and recover quickly from disasters. We are increasing our commitment to health, including water, sanitation, hygiene promotion, community-based health and first aid programs.
We also send our specialist aid workers across the globe - responding to emergencies and working with communities on a diverse range of international aid and development programs
Red Cross Overseas Projects:
- HIV Prevention (Education)
- Disaster Preparedness
- Water & Sanitation
- Community Based First aid
- Supporting organisational development of Red Cross partners
Established in 1953 (known under a different name) before becoming Oxfam Australia in 2005
to create solutions to poverty by empowering people to help themselves
Oxfams strategic plan (2014 - 2019) states that people can exercise the basic rights, inclduing:
- right to life and security - right to have an identity
- right to a sustainable livelihood - right to have access to essential services
- right to be heard
What does Oxfam Australia do?
- Long term development projects
- Responds to emergencies
- Campaigning for a more just world
- Involve the Australian community
- Funded through sales from Oxfam shops
- Ethical investments, banking and travel
Provide food, shelter, water, health services
- Long term programs:
Mozambique Oxfam works with locals to establish irrigation systems to allow for better crop potential
The 6 Goals:
1 Right to be heard
2. Advancing gender justice
3. Saving lives now and in the future
4. Sustainable food
5. Fair sharing of natural resources
6. Financing for development and universal essential services
Chapter 11 -
Addressing Global Health Issues
As you have explored in previous chapters, millions of people die annually as a result of conditions that are preventable, with the vast majority of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The incidence of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and malaria can be significantly reduced with appropriate education and preventative interventions. Increased literacy rates correlate positively with improved health outcomes. Malnutrition has an enormous impact on the health of individuals and communities; ensuring adequate food intake for all individuals is a global challenge. For many communities in developing countries, lack of access to clean water and sanitation significantly increases the risk of potentially fatal water-related conditions such as diarrhoea. Programs that focus on literacy, food security, HIV/AIDS, malaria, immunisation and the provision of safe water and sanitation aim to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates from preventable conditions, particularly in developing countries. These programs support the achievement of the new sustainability goals.
Food Security Programs
Water & Sanitation Programs
Analyse & Evaluate Programs focusing on literacy, food security, HIV/AIDS and malaria, immunisation, safe water and sanitation in terms of:
- Reasons for each program
- Types of aid involved in the programs
- Implementation of the programs
- Contribution to global health
- Their contribution to the achievement of sustainable human development
Analyse & Evaluate aid programs in terms of the Elements of Sustainability & their contribution to health
'The ability to read and write'
Educated & Literate children ......
- Have the ability to have a higher level of health
- More likely to be employed (improving living standards)
- Likely to be engaged in health promoting behaviours
- Greater ability to contribute to society & lead productive lives
- Less likely to have as many children and will marry later
Sample Literacy Program: 'WE BLOOM'
Reasons for the program (3 marks):
-2/3 of illiterate people are women
- Improving literacy skills will allow girl to develop skills and increase opportunities for employment and income
- Girls are less likely to attend school than boys in developing countries
Type of Aid (2 marks):
NGO aid - as it is ran and funded by CARE Australia
Program Description / Implementation (3 marks):
- Provides young women in Cambodia with literacy, numeracy and life skill classes
- Women are taught to set goals and overcome conflict to improve confidence which enables them to be a part of community decision making
How does 'WE BLOOM" promote global health (3 marks):
Providing the Cambodian women with literacy skills allows these women an opportunity to learn how to read and write. This may give the women involved an ability to gain knowledge about various disease and how to prevent them from occurring. They could also spread this knowledge to other members of the community, resulting in a reduced chance of disease and illness spreading, resulting in lower prevalence of illness within the Cambodian population positively impacting global health.
How does 'WE BLOOM" promote SHD (6 marks):
Developing literacy skills will allow the individuals to confident and boost self-esteem, positively improving mental health. Having the ability to read and write improves employment prospects and gives people a greater chance to develop to their full potential, by increasing their opportunity to work, they will be able to gain an income increase GNI and decent standards of living dimensions of human development. As a result of the better job/income opportunities of the current generation, the ability of future generations to work an earn an income also improves. Future generations could also be able to make a contribution to the economic gr of the region and meet their own needs, promoting economic sustainability. The literacy and numeracy skill lasses allows Cambodian women and mentors to interact with one another and build productive relationships positively impacting social health. Through the increased relationships women can share their knowledge and skills with other family and community members positively promoting social sustainability. Overall literacy programs provide the Cambodian community with the skills, resources and knowledge to reach their full potential in accordance with their needs and interests.
Lack of food leads to....
- Malnutrition & reduced immunity to infection resulting in shorter life expectancy
- Individuals smaller in height, weight and less likely to perfrom physical tasks
- Impairment of intellectual skills required for employment
- Lack of awareness and understanding of health promoting behaviours
- Reducaed ability to achieve
sustainable human development
and a lower HDI
'Means that all people have consistent access to the quantity and quality of food required to meet their physical needs''
Programs are target as the following groups that are most vulnerable include......
- The poor
- Women & Girls
- People with multiple sex partners
- Injecting drug users
- Children of infected mothers
* Education is key
* Treatment can lessen the effect
& slow the progression
- Significant contributor to poverty in developing countries
- Symptoms - headache, fever, vomiting
- Estimated 25% of annual income in Africa spent on prevention & treatment
- Malaria reduces lie expectancy, impacts on an individuals ability to gain education in turn reducing capacity to earn an income
- Early detection and effective treatment can shorten the infection
Strategies that can be put in place include:
- limiting mosquito breeding areas
- use of insecticide treated bed nets
- spraying insecticide around homes
- 1.4 million children die every year due to vaccine -preventable diseases
- Vaccination through the 1st and 2nd years of life are extremely important
- Also important for pregnant women to be vaccinated
- Water is essential for life
- Diarrhoeal diseases is the cause of millions of preventable diseases
- Water needs to not only be clean but sustainable as well
- Access to sanitation will improve health greatly both for the individual and the community in developing
SAC DATE CHANGE
WEDNESDAY 21st SEPTEMBER
In the VCE Center - V1 & V2