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Cement

Chemistry Project
by

Allison Stamp

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Cement

PORTLAND
CEMENT CHEMICAL PROCESS: CHEMICALS Silica Calcium Oxide Iron III Oxide Monosulfate Calcium Hyrdroxide Aluminum Oxide CHEMICAL REACTIONS INVOLVED IN PROCESS: USED IN PROCESS: BYPRODUCTS OF CEMENT: By-Products: Carbon Dioxide: During the process of making cement, carbon dioxide is one of the gases given off. For every one ton of cement produced, one ton of carbon dioxide is created as well. Fly ash is another by-product that is produced during cement creation. Process of Making Cement Step 1: First step is to get limestone, as it is an important ingredient in the making of cement. Then they get sand and clay. Altogether these three ingredients contain the elements needed in this process, which are: silicon, aluminum, calcium and iron. These ingredients are then transferred to the cement plant, to then start the process. Step 2: The limestone is crushed into marble-sized pieces, once put into the crusher. Step 3: The marble-sized limestone is then blended with certain raw materials by being put into a blender. Step 4: The raw materials are grounded into powder, by being put into the grinder. Step 5: The raw materials are then put into a furnace that heats it at a very high temperature (2700F) without melting it. Once through the furnace the raw materials come out as red hot cinders called clinkers. Step 6: The clinker gets cooled and then put into a grinder for the last time and gypsum is added. Once the final product of Portland Cement is created the cement is put into holding tanks. http://www.buildeazy.com/newplans/eazylist/cement.html End Products Place where Process Occurs Negative Effects (Opinion) How Chemical Process is Affecting the Environment Beneficial for Community (Opinion) Works Cited By: Allison, Bryar, Ashley, Maddy Builder's Concrete Builders Concrete Office
3664 W. Ashlan Ave Fresno, California. United States Cement Carbon Dioxide Fly-ash Dehydration:

Cement starts with quarried limestone that is crushed and blasted into small pieces and then is mixed with clay, shale and iron ore. From here, the chemicals for a powder that is heated in kilns where it goes through dehydration and any free water in the powder evapourates.

Calcination:

Calcination is a decomposition reaction that is caused by the loss of water and carbon dioxide within the mixture while the mixture is heated at a temperature below its melting point, usually around 1300- degrees celsius.

Clinkering:

During clinkering phase,the mixture is heated to temperatures between 1300- and 1450- degrees celsius. This is when calcium silicates are formed. After this, the mixture is cooled, forming aluminate phase, ferrite and a bit of belite. The resulting clinker is mixed with gypsum to produce concrete.

Hydration:

The cement is mixed with aggregates to create dry ingredients for concrete. Once water is added to this mixture, the chemical reaction hydration begins. Concrete hardens because of hydration, not evaporation. The 5 major compounds in portland cement are tricalcium sulfate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, tetracalcium aluminoferrite and gypsum. During the reaction, each of the products react with water to add either heat to the reaction or add strength to the final hardened concrete. http://www.nationalcement.com/markets/ca In our opinion, the negative effects of having this chemical process take place in this area is that it creates pollution in the air (Carbon Dioxide) that affect living organisms such as animals (including humans) and plants that are growing. http://www.instantstreetview.com/ http://www.us-concrete.com/ef_technology/index.asp The burning of fossil fuels during the process of cement creation leaves carbon dioxide lingering, which harms the air. Cement also takes the place of land when it is used, and can be a cause of deforestation. Plants and animals are at risk of breathing in these dangerous fumes instead of oxygen, which can affect their growth and development, therefore harming the food chain and ecosystem http://www.us-concrete.com/ef_technology/index.asp We think cement is beneficial for the community because it has many uses in today's society. It is a major material used in construction for things such as roads, hoghways, sidewalks, floors, and even buildings. These are all necessary structures for everyday living. We learned that cement is one of the only fire proof materials that is used in construction as well. http://www.slideshare.net/Shambhudayal/cement-process-chemistry

http://matse1.matse.illinois.edu/concrete/prin.html

http://www.cement.org/basics/concretebasics_chemical.asp

http://books.google.ca/books?id=1BOETtwi7mMC&pg=PA61&dq=chemical+reactions+in+cement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DxF_Ua_sF-2gyQGOloHwDQ&ved=0CEwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=chemical%20reactions%20in%20cement&f=false 1. About cement. (2009, November 27). Retrieved on April 22 2013 from
http://www.slideshare.net/Shambhudayal/cement-process-chemistry

2. All about cement. (2001, December). Retrieved on April 22 2013 from
http://www.buildeazy.com/newplans/eazylist/cement.html

3. California. (2012). Retrieved on April 29 2013 from
http://www.nationalcement.com/markets/ca

4. Chemical admixtures. (n.d). Retrieved on April 22 2013 from
http://www.cement.org/basics/concretebasics_chemical.asp

5. Instant google street view. (n.d.). Retrieved on April 29 2013 from
http://www.instantstreetview.com/

6. Scientific principles. (n.d.). Retrieved on April 22 2013 from
http://matse1.matse.illinois.edu/concrete/prin.html

7. Stronger, cleaner, greener concrete. (2011). Retrieved on April 24 2013 from
http://www.us-concrete.com/ef_technology/index.asp

8. Taylor, H. F. W. (1997). Cement chemistry, second edition. (p. 59). Retrieved on April 22 2013 from
http://books.google.ca/books?id=1BOETtwi7mMC&pg=PA61&dq=chemical+reactions+in+cement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DxF_Ua_sF-2gyQGOloHwDQ&ved=0CEwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=chemical%20reactions%20in%20cement&f=false
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