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Chapter 5 Nutrition and Your Health
Transcript of Chapter 5 Nutrition and Your Health
By: Jang won Suh
Lesson 1 Nutrition during Teen Years
Nutrition: the process by which the body takes in and uses food.
Good nutrition improves your quality of life. It provides you with the calories and nutrients your body needs.
Calories(kilocalories): are units of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to the body.
Nutrients are substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy.
Lesson 2 Nutrients
To survive, the human body needs the nutrients found in food. These nutrients are classified into six groups: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Carbohydrates are the starches and sugars present in foods.
Made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen it is the body's preferred source of energy. It provides four calories per gram.
Most nutritionists recommend that 55 to 60 percent of your daily calories come from carbohydrates, mainly complex carbohydrates.
Lesson 3 Guides for Healthful Eating
It is important to eat balanced variety of nutrient rich foods each day.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) have published a booklet titled Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans is a set of recommendations for healthful eating and active living.
The recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines are grouped into three broad areas known as the ABCs of good health.
Lesson 4 Food and Healthy Living
Examine almost any food package, and you’ll find a Nutrition Facts panel.
Why do we eat what we eat?
Taste is a big part of our decision.
But it is important to understand the difference between what you want to psychologically eat and what your body physically needs.
Hunger, an unlearned, inborn response, is a natural physical drive that protects you from starvation.
Appetite is a desire, rather than a need, to eat.
Other influences in our food choices.
If you feel stressed, frustrated, or depressed you could eat more or less food. Which can result in unhealthful weight gain or loss.
Family, friends, and peers.
Cultural and ethnic background
Convince and cost
Advertisements: tv, radio, internet
Nutrition is important throughout your entire life.
Particularly during adolescence—one of the fastest periods of growth you’ll experience.
Healthful nutrients = growth, development, energy for sports and you are mentally alert. Also it boosts your self esteem.
In addition, a healthful and balanced eating plan helps prevent unhealthful weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
Eating healthy also reduces risks of conditions such as: heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, and osteoporosis.
Types of carbohydrates
Simple and Complex Carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates are sugars, such as fructose and lactose. Found in fruit and milk.
Complex carbohydrates, or starches, are found in whole grains, seeds, nuts, dried peas and beans.
The body must break down complex carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates before it can use them for energy.
Eventually your body converts all carbohydrates to glucose.
A simple sugar that is the body’s main source of energy. Glucose that your body does not use right away is stored in the liver and muscles as a starch-like substance called glycogen. If you take in more carbohydrates than your body needs it is stored as body fat.
Fiber is an indigestible complex carbohydrate that is found in the tough, stringy parts of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
It can’t be digested but is used as energy, fiber helps move waste through the digestive system
ABCs of good health
A: Aim for Fitness
-Aim for a healthy weight
-Be physically active each day
B: Build a Healthy Base
-The “base” of this food plan is the
Food Guide Pyramid, a guide for making healthful daily food choices.
Have guide lines:
-Make your food choices carefully.
-Choose a variety of grain products, especially whole grains.
-Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
-Keep food safe to eat.
C: Choose Sensibly
-low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat.
-beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars.
-prepare foods with less salt.
Moderation in Fats, Sugar, and Salt
While some fats, sugar, and salt are good for your health, most Americans eat too much of all these.
The Dietary Guidelines recommends that no more than 30 percent of daily calories come from fats.
You can moderate your sugar intake by:
-identifying added sugars by their names on food packages.
-Corn syrup, honey, and molasses are all types of sugar
-Balance foods that have added sugars with foods that
You can moderate salt by:
-Read the Nutrition Facts panel on food labels to find out how much sodium a serving contains.
-Taste foods before you salt them, and then go easy with the salt shaker.
Healthful Eating Patterns
Whether you eat three meals a day or even more “minimeals,” variety, moderation, and balance are the foundation of a healthful eating plan
Breakfast is a important meal of the day. While you sleep, your body uses energy for functions such as breathing and keeping your heart beating. If you skip breakfast you might feel tired later on.
Eating healthy snacks is good too.
Another part of healthful eating is making sensible food choices when you eat out. Use the Food Guide Pyramid when making choices.
Most food labels also list the food’s ingredients by weight, in descending order, with the ingredient in the greatest amount listed first.
Some ingredients are
food additives, substances intentionally added to food to produce a desired effect.
Additives may be used to enhance a food’s flavor or color or lengthen its storage life.
SUGAR AND FAT SUBSTITUTES
Due to the public’s concerns about excess calories the food industry has developed substitutes.
Many diet drinks are sweetened with aspartame, which is essentially calorie-free. Fructose, the natural sugar in fruit, and is sometimes used as a sweetener.
An example of a fat replacer is olestra.
Food labels may state the potential health benefits of a food. In some cases the label may also detail the conditions under which the food was produced or grown—for example, whether or not a food is organic or contains organic ingredients.
A vital part of every cell in your body,
proteins are nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues.
Proteins are made from long chains of substances called amino acids.
Your body can naturally produce all but 9 of the 20 different amino acids.
Those 9 are called essential amino acids.
The proteins in food are classified into two groups:
contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids. Ex: Animal product, fish, meat, egg.
lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Ex: include beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains.
Proteins replace damaged or worn-out cells, fuel the body, make enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.
Some fat in the diet is necessary for good health.
Fats are a type of lipid, a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water.
Fats provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrates or proteins—9 calories per gram.
There are saturated and Unsaturated fats
High intake of saturated fats will increase risk of heart disease. Ex: Beef, Pork, Egg yolk.
Unsaturated fats will reduce the risk of heart disease. Ex: olive, canola, soybean, corn.
Fats transport vitamins A, D, E, and K in your blood and is needed for growth and healthy skin
Cholesterol is a waxy lipid like substance that circulates in blood. Your body uses the small amount it manufactures to make cell membranes and nerve tissue and to produce many hormones
But excess blood cholesterol can increase risk of heart disease.
Cholesterol levels tend to rise as people age.
Taking in a lot of saturated fat will increase your cholesterol.
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins are compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients.
Vitamins are classified as either water- or fat-soluble.
Water soluble vitamins, listed in dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood during digestion. The body doesn't store these vitamins. Ex: Vitamin C, B6, B2, B1.
Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed, stored, and transported in fat. Your body stores these vitamins in your fatty tissue, liver, and kidneys. Excess buildup of these vita- mins in your body can be toxic. Ex: Vitamin A, D, E, K.
Minerals are substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and for regulating many vital body processes.
Ex: Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron.
Water is vital to every body function. It transports other nutrients and carries wastes from your cells. Water also lubricates your joints and mucous membranes. It enables you to swallow and digest foods, absorb other nutrients, and eliminate wastes. Therefore it is important to drink at least 8 cups of water a day to maintain health.
Nutrient Content Claims
Product labels may advertise a food’s nutrient value. Some terms are:
Light or Lite. The calories have been reduced by at least one-third, or the fat or sodium has been reduced by at least 50 percent.
Less. The food contains 25 percent less of a nutrient or of calories than a comparable food.
Free. The food contains no amount, or an insignificant amount, of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugars, or calories.
More. The food contains 10 percent more of the Daily Value for a vitamin, a mineral, protein, or fiber.
High, Rich In, or Excellent Source Of. The food contains 20 percent or more of the Daily Value for a vitamin, a mineral, protein, or fiber.
Lean. The food is a meat, poultry, fish, or shellfish product that has less than 10 grams of total fat, less than 4 grams of saturated fat, and less than 95 mg of cholesterol per 3-ounce serving.
Many food products have open dates on their labels.
Expiration date. The last date you should use the product.
Freshness date: The last date a food is considered to be fresh.
Sell-by date (or pull date). The last date the product should be sold. You can store and use a product after its sell-by date.
A food allergy is a condition in which the body’s immune system reacts to substances in some foods.
People with allergies have different reactions. Ex: rash, hives, or itchiness of the skin; vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain; or itchy eyes and sneezing.
A food intolerance is a negative reaction to a food or part of food caused by a metabolic problem, such as the inability to digest parts of certain foods or food components.
Foodborne illness, or food poisoning
may result from eating food contaminated with pathogens (disease-causing organisms), the poisons they produce, or poisonous chemicals.
Things you can do to prevent food poisoning:
Pasteurization is the process of treating a substance with heat to destroy or slow the growth
cross-contamination, the spreading of bacteria or other pathogens from one food to another,
wash your hands, cutting boards, utensils, plates, and countertops with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item.
Thank you for watching and listening!