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The Rwandan Genocide

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Brendan Kong

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of The Rwandan Genocide

The Rwandan Genocide by Brendan Kong, Michael Hamilton and Charlie Shi Videos Alison Desforges:

http://www.ushmm.org/genocide/take_action/gallery/portrait/desforges

Norah Bagarinka:

http://www.ushmm.org/genocide/take_action/gallery/portrait/bagarinka Q. Why were you, Frank Claeys, in Rwanda between 1993 and April 1994?
A. I was part of a reconnaissance team from the Belgian army to prepare the participation to the UNAMIR mission.
Q. What was your specific assignment?
A. Originally I was there as an advisor. I remained after the first part of the mission, and was assigned to the position of information officer of the UNAMIR headquarters.
Q. How did you get your information?
A. There were are number of people who organized meetings with us. Most notably was a person, known to me as Jean-Pierre, who had a lot of important information, which he verbally gave to me, and I wrote notes to give to my superiors.
Q.I want to direct your attention to the booklet in front of you. The first line begins with "Informant states he disagrees with anti-Tutsi extermination". Where does the phrase "anti-Tutsi extermination" come from?
A.The informant was speaking French and these were his words that we just put in in English, so he was speaking in French about l’extermination des Tutsis.
Q. Also on that booklet the words "Example he gave was that in 20 minutes his personnel could kill up to 1,000 Tutsis". Were those the precise words that the informant used?
A.In fact, the words that informant used were that his personnel was able to kill a thousand Tutsi every 20 minutes, so we just took this as a matter to emphasize on the method or the speed that they could apply in their plan.
Q.In the context of what the informant was telling you, what did you understand the reference to his "personnel" to mean? Who was that in reference to?
A.During this first meeting the informant spoke about the training of paramilitary in camps outside of Kigali, where they got training for at least three weeks, and that the aim of this training was to be used afterwards to conduct this plan and so he made reference to these paramilitary people that were part of this organisation. Within Kigali, he explained that they had divided Kigali in 20 different sectors or cells -- he spoke about cellules, chef de cellule -- which each town was responsible for a part of Kigali where they would be able to execute this plan of extermination. So, the available personnel in this cellule should, on a large scale, be able to exterminate a thousand people in 20 minutes. Evidence against Théoneste Bagosora from an Examination-In-Chief of Frank Claeys What was the Rwandan Genocide? - The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass murder of an estimated 800,000 people in the East African state of Rwanda, mainly the Tutsi people.

- Over the course of approximately 100 days (from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6 through mid-July) over 500,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate.

- Estimates of the death toll have ranged from 500,000–1,000,000 or as much as 20% of the country's total population. It was the culmination of longstanding ethnic competition and tensions between the minority Tutsi, who had controlled power for centuries, and the majority Hutu peoples, who had come to power in the rebellion of 1959–62 More evidence... Q.Were you told who ordered him to do this list?
A.He never spoke about a name. He was always referring to the MRND party and the authorities leading this party where he was depending from.
Q.Were you told why the Tutsi were being listed?
A.He explained that, in the beginning, this was part of a defense plan for Kigali, and during this first meeting when we asked him what his motives were to come to us and give some information about what was ongoing in Kigali, he said that, in fact, he would cooperate to a defense plan for Kigali, but he didn't agree any more if this plan of registration was to an extermination plan. So, by saying this, we understood that this drafting of lists and this inventory of population within Kigali, the aim for this plan was to exterminate the Tutsi. Case against Théoneste Bagosora We are charging Théoneste Bagosora on the counts of:

Conspiracy to commit genocide
Complicity with genocide
Genocide
Violation of Common Article 3 of the Geneva Convention Article 86 of Additional Protocol 1 (1997) to the Geneva Conventions “the fact that a breach of the Conventions or of this Protocol was committed by a subordinate does not absolve his superiors from penal disciplinary responsibility as the case may be if they knew, or had information which would have enabled them to conclude in the circumstances at the time that he was committing or was going to commit such a breach and if they did not take all feasible measures within their power to prevent or repress the breach.” Conclusion “It seems that, in as much as there was a general organizer of the whole operation, this distinction has to go to Colonel Théoneste Bagosora.”
—Gérard Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide, New York: Columbia University Press, 1995 Bibliography “It seems that, in as much as there was a general organizer of the whole operation, this distinction has to go to Colonel Théoneste Bagosora.”
—Gérard Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide, New York: Columbia University Press, 1995 http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v10n1/hendin101_text.html#1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions_T

http://lawofwar.org/Decision%20Making.htm

%20EXPERT%20REPORT%20PRESENTED%20BY%20SERGE%20A.%20DESOUTER.PDF

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16185659

http://www.unictr.org/Portals/0/Case%5CEnglish%5CBagosora%5CJudgement%5C111214-%20Appeals%20Judgement.pdf

http://www.unictr.org/Cases/tabid/127/PID/10/default.aspx?id=3&mnid=3


Michael N. Barnett. Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=U49kfeY3a20C&pg=PA78&lpg=PA78&dq=Jean-Pierre+informant+rwanda&source=bl&ots=88fcp704ta&sig=lynkGTOlsN4ZZWkrI-zh3WFw8as&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pmhyUInYJaWhiAef64DwCQ&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Jean-Pierre%20informant%20rwanda&f=false

Fred Grünfeld, Anke Huijboom . The Failure to Prevent Genocide in Rwanda: The Role of Bystanders

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=9Tq_zbETHHwC&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=machiavellian+plan+letter+source+rwanda&source=bl&ots=fPeamN-upI&sig=QqBuZl8B2V72NFBToTstYwIktJU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iuZxULqpFvGYiAeK8YDADQ&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=machiavellian%20plan%20letter%20source%20rwanda&f=false

Linda Melvern. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=xIwz20bNknsC&pg=PA297&lpg=PA297#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://trim.unictr.org/webdrawer/rec/36043/

http://www.scribd.com/doc/53729344/41/Interahamwe

http://www.ushmm.org/genocide/take_action/gallery/portraits/rwanda

http://www.ushmm.org/genocide/analysis/details.php?content=2002-03-11

http://www.enotes.com/bagosora-theoneste-reference/bagosora-theoneste

http://history1900s.about.com/od/rwandangenocide/a/Rwanda-Genocide.htm

http://www.crimesofwar.org/a-z-guide/command-responsibility/ We find Colonel Théoneste Bagosora guilty on of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. He is to be sentenced to life imprisonment.
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