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Conditioning and Learning - Part 1

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by

Linda Olson

on 27 September 2016

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Transcript of Conditioning and Learning - Part 1

Classical Conditioning
US-Unconditioned Stimulus – a naturally occurring stimulus – food, pain, fear, reward associated stimuli (.brain’s reward center “high”)
UR-Unconditioned Response - a naturally occurring response – salivation, flinching, crying
NS- Neutral Stimulus- has no effect – person, place, object
CS- Conditioning Stimulus- stimulus used to condition – bell, vaccination needle, nurse, additive substance (food, chocolate, alcohol, etc.), cues (martini glass, chocolate candy bar, etc.)
CR- Conditioned Response – a learned response to the conditioning stimulus


Learning
Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience.
Eye Blink Conditioning- Diana Woodruff noticed disordered eye blink in a patient 8 years before other tests showed any other type of dementia. People with autism also show unusual eyeblink.
CER-Conditioned Emotional Response- An emotional response that has been linked to a previously non-emotional stimulus by classical conditioning.
Operant Conditioning- the saga of Henrietta (Henry's cousin - the little white rat with the frontal lobe intact.
INITIAL CONDITIONING-
1. The light comes on in the Skinner Box.. No big deal. Henrietta ...Sniffs corners...Jumps up on sides of box...Runs in circles.
2. Finally, Henrietta accidentally pushes the lever. Food drops into the box and is eaten by Henrietta.
3. This is repeated several times, UNTIL the light bulb in Henrietta's head comes on and she thinks, "EUREKA!!! every time that light comes on, if I push that lever, food comes out.
Completed Operant Conditioning
The light comes on....Henrietta immediately pushes the lever....Food comes out.


Punishment vs. Negative Reinforcement
Punishment - follows a response with an aversive consequence (Ex. - Time-out)=>decreases the likelihood that the response will occur again.
Negative Reinforcement - ends discomfort (shock) when the correct response happens (pushing the lever)
Conditioning and Learning - Part 1
1. Associative Learning - the formation of simple associations between various stimuli.

2. Cognitive Learning - Higher level learning involving thinking, knowing , understanding, anticipation.... discovery learning, observational learning.
Desensitization - reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing the person to emotional stimuli while the person is relaxed. How could desensitization be used in school phobia?
2 Different Types of Learning :
Desensitization
Using Virtual Reality to Desensitize. --Panic Disorder
Virtual Reality - Panic Disorders & Anxiety
Shaping - gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern.
Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) is a process of behavior modification in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological ...
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
OPERANT CONDITIONING
Classically Conditioning a Three Yr. Old lovelaughlive 42-
Pavlov Theory - The Office- kirksay 5
Classical Conditioning at BGSU -David Johnson
An Example of a Skinner Box Geert Steinissen
THORNDIKE'S LAW OF EFFECT:

Behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
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