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Political and Economic Systems
Transcript of Political and Economic Systems
Issues are discussed until there is agreement on action
Leaders have power only as long as the people respect and listen to them
Pros: very democratic, keeps people together
Cons: can take a long time to make a decision, works best with small populations Ojibwe DIRECT DEMOCRACY Ancient Athens No elected leaders
Every citizen gets to vote on every law, tax, or decision that the government makes.
If you show up to vote, your vote counts as much as anyone's.
Pros: responds to the will of most of the people, people are very involved
Cons: No checks on power of the majority, would be hard to do on a large scale PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC Voters elect MPs (Members of Parliament) to represent them.
MPs belong to political parties--usually there are many
Seats awarded proportionately--parties have to form coalitions to govern
Prime minister is head of ruling party. King, queen, president, etc. usually a ceremonial position.
Most democracies in the world have this type of government.
PROS: "Winner take most" rather than "Winner take all," parties must deal with each other. Fringe opinions included.
CONS: Governments can be unstable, fringe opinions included. U.K. PRESIDENTIAL REPUBLIC U.S.A. People elect lawmakers and a president to serve for a defined number of years.
President has broad powers over foreign policy and to implement laws.
"Winner take all" means a two-party system.
US, Russia, Ireland, Mexico, and many Latin American countries use this system.
PROS: Stable, powerful governments that are held accountable by voters.
CONS: Many views left out, elections expensive and divisive, some say president can get too powerful OLIGARCHY: The Rule of the Few CHIEFDOM Ancient Hawaii A ruling clan dominates society--most families not allowed into council
Chief's word is law
Chief's power comes from noble birth
PROS: Decisions can be made quickly
CONS: Lesser families have no say in government. ARISTOCRACY "Rule of the Best"
Rich landowners have power, voting rights, share in government
Poor have no say in government.
PRO: It's nice for the aristocrats. Some argue that more successful people will make better decisions.
CON: It's unfair. Aristocratic interests may clash with government interests. Austria in the 1700s PLUTOCRACY Rule of the rich
Wealthy have the power over government
PRO: Some argue the rich have more to lose or gain from government action.
CON: Rich use government to protect their own interests. Dubai, U.A.E. Theocracy Religious law is law. Religious leaders are government leaders.
Leaders claim their power from God(s) and rise to power through the church or religious institution.
No separation between church and state.
PRO: Stable set of laws, some religions demand theocracy.
CON: Not democratic, Terrible for religious minorities. MERITOCRACY Ancient China "Rule of the most able and deserving"
You get into a position of power through achievement and performance.
Take some sort of test
PRO: You have capable people in charge.
CON: Who decides what's on the test? JUNTA A small group of military leaders has absolute control
The people have few rights and little say in politics
Usually warlike--country's wealth goes to military
PROS: Strong military, decisions are made quickly and decisively
CONS: Very harsh and repressive Burma (Myanmar) DICTATORSHIP North Korea One person has total control over the country
They take power or get it from the previous dictator
Large cults of personality--celebrations of "The Leader"
People have few rights
PROS: Efficient--only one person has to agree on a decision.
CONS: Dictators tend to value keeping power and money for themselves rather than what's best for the country. AUTOCRACY: The Rule of One MONARCHY A king, queen, prince, etc. has total power
They get it from royal birth--claim power from God(s)
PROS: You know who the ruler is going to be, the people tend to love the ruler as long as he-she is good
CONS: Just because someone is born into a royal family doesn't make them fit to lead. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Traditional: Systems that have been around for thousands of years. Local area the focus.
Free Market: Government mostly stays out of personal economic decisions. The market determines what is produced and at what price.
Command: The government controls the economy and production. The government decides what is produced and at what cost. HUNTER-GATHERER Earliest form of economy
Still around today
No money, limited trade
People get just enough to live off of and get it for themselves
Very little difference between rich and poor
PROS: People tend to be happier, healthier, and work less hours. Good for the environment
CONS: Starvation and warfare in times of scarcity, only works with low population density. New Guinea SUBSISTENCE FARMING Been around for 10,000 years
You grow enough food for your family to live and you make most other things you need
Limited trade, little division between rich and poor, extra food is kept for the bad years
PROS: Can support larger populations that H-G, people are self-reliant
CONS: You have to work much harder than in H-G, at the mercy of nature Peru MANORALISM Wealthy landowners own the land and the people who farm it.
All extra goes to the landlord. Peasants get barely enough to live off of.
Landlord has money and engages in trade for luxury goods
Peasants do little trading
PROS: It's nice for the landlord
CONS: Peasants have short, harsh lives. Can be rough on the environment. It's not always efficient. Medieval Europe CAPITALISM Singapore The market determines what needs to be produced and at what price.
Complicated financial and credit systems
Government largely leaves it up to businesses to succeed of fail.
Dominant economic system in the world today.
PROS: Efficient, can produce great wealth and prosperity
CONS: Creates big gap between rich and poor, bad for the environment, prone to booms and busts
MARKET SOCIALISM Market determines what is produced but wealthy and businesses are taxed at a high rate.
Government provides free health care, education, day care, etc.
Government tries to make things more equal between rich and poor.
PROS: You don't have poverty in a rich country the way capitalist countries do, less crime and social problems.
CONS: Can slow growth of the economy, government more involved in peoples' lives.
Finland COMMUNISM Government takes total control of the economy, determines what is produced, what jobs people will have, etc.
Government provides all services and tries to spread money out equally.
CONS: Inefficient, leads to dictatorships, weird incentives Cuba FASCISM Government and rich corporations work together to control the economy and keep all the money.
Military power and racism used to control the people.
PROS: Very efficient
CONS: Horrible conditions for poor, leads to war and race hatred, Hitler