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Launching the New Nation

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by

Mark Chambers

on 30 October 2015

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Transcript of Launching the New Nation

Washington and the new government
No plan to follow...how to lead?
Judiciary Act 1789
- established a court system (this becomes important very soon)
Washington appoints members to executive branch
Jefferson and Hamilton differ in ideas
Hamilton - strong central gov't lead by wealthy, educated elite
Jefferson - strong state gov't lead by the average citizen involved in their local gov't
Washington and the new government
Hamilton creates an economic plan
Most of debt owed by the federal gov't
Went to foreign gov't and war bonds
Issue new bonds to cover old ones
Fed gov't assume debts of states
Southerners mad - they'd already paid their debts
A
National Bank
Supported by fed gov't and wealthy investors
Opponents saw tying wealthy to the bank as a bad idea
...and the Constitution didn't provide for it
Debate - loose or strict interpretation of Constitution?
To gain support...capital in the South - Washington DC
Whiskey Rebellion
- farmers taxed on whiskey (big money)
farmers refuse to pay - militia called in to control farmers
first show of federal power to enforce laws
Trouble in Europe and at home
French Revolution
- ideas like ours - leads to many deaths
Support is split - Washington declares neutrality
No side chosen
Battle of Fallen Timbers
- Native Americans push back against encroaching settlers
Gov't negotiates a payment for land - this pattern continues for many decades - often broken
Jay's Treaty
- terms with Britain about trade (NW Territories and Caribbean)
British ships seizing American crew and cargo - treaty never addressed this
further
Federalist-Republican
division
President Adams - present problems
Presidential election - two candidates
Adams & Pickney (F) vs. Jefferson & Burr (R)
Adams 71 Jefferson 68 (new Prez and VP)
Sectionalism
growing - areas of country loyal to themselves
French threaten war - Jay's Treaty (violated Treaty of Paris)
XYZ Affair
- French demand payment for speaking privileges
US to France - "Get Bent!" - Some want war - Adams "no"
Immigrants support Repubs - Adams wants them silenced
Alien and Sedition Acts
- 14 years to citizenship and any negative of gov't gets you thrown in jail - 1st Amendment?
VA and KY Resolutions
- states could nullify (void) any unconstitutional Congressional act
Jefferson wins in 1800
Jefferson beats Adams - Burr gets same # of votes
House has to decide - deadlock
Hamilton "helps" - Jefferson gets the job - more qualified according to Hamilton - Burr vengeful
Jefferson wished to simplify the gov't
cut spending, reduced taxes (remember the Whiskey Rebellion?), and favored free trade (not gov't run)
Jefferson's election showed growing power of the South
Federalists lose influence, support
Federal Decisions & Expansion
Adams pushes through Fed judges before leaving office
Midnight judges -
John Marshall
Chief Justice
Marbury v. Madison
- appointing a justice after Adams left
Marshall decides Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
Judicial review
- Sup. Court decides constitutionality
Expansion - westward migration
Louisiana Purchase - Jefferson buys land from French
Doubles the size of the nation
Lewis and Clark explore the region
Sacajawea assists them
A Demand for War
British seizing American ships - enforce
impressment
Jefferson suggests an
embargo
- ban on exports
Backfires - economic downturn
Native American conflict - British encouraging Native American attacks on settlers - fuels hate toward British
Madison elected - war against British
Deflated army budget (Jefferson) hinders progress
British burn DC and try to take Ft. Henry - "Star Spangled Banner" Francis Scott Key
Treaty of Ghent - armistice
Battle of New Orleans - Andrew Jackson leads charge
fought 2 weeks after armistice signed
Let's Review!
Judicial system established
Federalist v. Antifederalist (Democratic-Republicans)
Opposing views of federal gov't (among others)
National Bank - growing debt to pay - Whiskey Rebellion
Foreign issues (French Rev. and British issues)
Native American conflicts
Political views => sectionalism
Alien and Sedition Acts => nullification
Jefferson shifts power to Republicans - smaller gov't
Judicial review - Supreme Court strengthened
Louisiana Purchase - national expansion
War shows sectionalism and Republicans smaller gov't
THE END
Launching the New Nation
The road ahead
Full transcript