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The Brain & Education

Ed Psych

Steve Rhine

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of The Brain & Education

The Basic Brain
How the brain processes info
Memory, Retention, and Learning
Boys and Girls

Thinking about thinking
-higher brain function
-motor functions
Brain Stem
-body to brain
-solve problems
-variable environs
-in motion
100 billion
1/100th the size of a period
220mph, 2/10ths sec head to toe
Overproduction then pruning
15,000 neural connections by age 11
4,000 by age 40
Autistics up to 60% more neural connections
Mirror Neurons
Limbic System
We interpret everything emotionally first
Emotional connections to learning are strong
Threat triggers human cortisol, lasts for hours
Long term stress starves the brain:
damages heart,
cognitive decline,
shrink hippocampus (ST memory to LT)
Positive emotions contribute to learning:
trust, teacher/student relations, environment, control, humor
Greet s's into the classroom, allow to write or draw about stressful situations
Study of infants to adults:
20% excitable & 40% unexcitable
shy, cautious, inhibited vs. social, happy, uninhibited
I don't like not knowing what is going to happen
Corpus Callosum
1-3 years: synapse creation & glucose use at highest levels
At birth, baby has neural pathways for 6000+ languages
Reading is not natural
Lots of screen time before 2 = difficulty reading
Children in Professional Families: 11 million words
Children in Working Class Families: 6 million
Children in Welfare Families: 3 million
1000 books by Kindergarten
44 Phonemes (sounds) needed for reading
Goodnight Moon
Make Way for Ducklings
Charlotte’s Web
Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
3-6 years old
Math areas begin to develop in parietal lobe
Myelination accelerates in corpus callosum, linking parietal and temporal lobes
Dendrite growth in Broca’s areas
Glucose utilization 2X adults
Wernicke’s Area
Internal Dictionary for meaning from text
Broca’s Area
Puts words into correct phrases and sounds out words
7-8 years old
Synaptic density in frontal lobes peak
White matter exceeds gray matter
Accelerated growth of prefrontal cortex
9-12 years old
Pruning of synapses in frontal lobe begins
Hormones begin to cause changes in emotion and memory
White Matter
moderates communication between brain regions
Grey Matter
processing and cognition
What is your metaphor for the brain?
What is your metaphor for memory?
Brain Processing
perceptual register
short-term memory
working memory
long-term memory
Eyes register 36,000 visual images per hour
90% of sensory input is from visual
Seek visual stimuli and novelty
Peripheral vision
ADHD in bland classroom more off-task
Sound: unless performing complex task
Short Term Memory
Holds information for about 30 seconds
Working Memory
goal oriented manipulation of info
Primacy-Recency Effect
When we learn has an important impact on what we learn.
We remember best what comes first and remember second best what comes last.
Attention & Retention
Attention span = age in minutes
Rote-rehearsal vs. Elaborative rehearsal
Wait Time
Increased length and quality of student responses
Greater participation by slow learners
T’s improved expectations of slow learners
S’s use more evidence to support opinions
Higher order responses by S’s/questioning by T’s
Mnemonic devices
If you can say it in your own words, you own it.
Working Memory
Prior knowledge is a filter that helps establish meaning and relevancy
Negative transfer vs. Positive transfer
Big concepts
Watch these words
Confabulation & Transfer
We don’t store 100% of an experience, but the brain hates incompleteness
Two people who experience the same event, recall different things
Store by similarity/Retrieve by difference
Store in different parts of the brain
Focus on Critical Attributes
Long Term Memory
We produce new proteins to bind to synapses in order to cement memories in hippocampus
We separate text and pictures
squares, curved lines, colors in diff places
everybody tells the truth
Memorize the following
eth plpae si edr
The apple is red
Memorize the following:
20 minute nap between 2-4pm increases performance 34%
Early (Lark) vs. Late (Owl) Chronotype
Sleep on it!
21% vs. 59% could solve problem
Processing Emotion
Girls mature & acquire complex verbal skills earlier
Boys rely heavily on nonverbal communication
Corpus callosum 20% larger in girls
Prefrontal (emotional) and Occipital (sensory) lobes more developed in girls
Girls self-monitor high-risk & immoral behavior
M: less serotonin = more fidgety & impulsive
F: more oxytocin = more empathy
M: receive 5-7 surges of testosterone daily
F: bond first, ask questions later
M: aggression first, ask questions later
F: manage social with alliances
M: manage social with dominance
M: quick F: comprehensive use of resources
M: manage stimulants by simplifying
F: manage stimulants with complexity, establishing relationships
F: memory and sensory intake strong
M: spatial and abstract reasoning strong
Different storage strengths
Processing Emotion
When content is emotional:
Girls move information up into lobes to process: verbalize and reason
Boys move information down into stem to subdue: fight or flight
Girls process more emotive info more quickly, possibly making it personal
Boys can take hours to process emotive info

Rich, stimulating, and varied input
Active and meaningful learning
Processing/Wait time
Frequent feedback
Safe and non-threatening environment
Boys & girls process info differently
12 Principles of Brain Based Learning
The brain is a complex adaptive system.
The brain is a social brain.
The search for meaning is innate.
The search for meaning occurs through patterning.
Emotions are critical to patterning.
Every brain simultaneously perceives and creates parts and wholes.
Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral attention.
Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes.
We have at least two ways of organizing memory.
Learning is developmental.
Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat.
Every brain is uniquely organized.
Bloom's Taxonomy (1956)
Webb's Depth of Knowledge (1997)
Strategic Thinking
Extended Thinking
Marzano's Dimensions of Thinking (1989)
Gather info
Organize info
Generate info
Integrate info
Evaluate Infor
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•School age language acquisition occurs primarily through incidental experience more than formal teaching•Word learning shifts from concrete and functional to abstract and unusual from 3rd grade to HS•Environment matters. Extreme environments extremely matter.
-higher function
Limbic System
Brain Stem

We are products of our environment
• Student Readiness
• Student Interest
• Student Learning Profile
-Left/Right hemisphere
-Learning Styles
-Personality (colors)

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