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Pronouns

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by

Stephanie Seiber

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of Pronouns

Singular
The hot air balloon
lifted into the sky and flew
its
final flight yesterday.

The hot air balloon:
Antecedent
.
Its:
Pronoun
.
Plural

The hot air balloons
lifted in the the sky and flew
their
final flights yesterday.

The hot air balloons:
Antecedent
Their:
Pronoun

Making

Pronouns

agree

with

Antecedents
What is an
Antecedent
?
An
antecedent
is a noun that a
pronoun
refers to.

What is a Pronoun?
Shift In Pronouns
A shift in pronouns is when a pronoun does not match in number and/or person with it's antecedent.
Pronoun Shift in Numbers
Singular pronouns should refer to an antecedent that is also singular.
Plural pronouns should match with a plural antecedent.
A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun that
has already been mentioned in the sentence or
context.
A compound pronoun is a combination of pronouns that are used as the subject or an object of a sentence or phrase.
For Example
A baseball player leads an exciting life because they get to travel to many interesting cities.
Some examples of correct compound Forms are:
As you can see "a baseball player" is a singular
antecedent and "they" is a plural pronoun, causing
this sentence to be incorrect.
Incorrect Compound pronouns
Two Ways to Correct This:
Baseball Players
lead an exciting life because
they
get to travel to many interesting cities.
A baseball player
leads an exciting life because
he or she
get to travel to many interesting places.
A shift in person occurs when the pronoun and antecedent are in different persons, as in the following example:
Incorrect
compound pronoun examples:
Pronoun Shift In Person
Example:
Many new students feel overwhelmed at first. However, they soon learn that with hard work you can get good grades.
As you can see in this sentence it goes from
speaking in 3rd person to speaking in 2nd person.
How To Correct It:
As a new student,
you
may feel overwhelmed at first. However,
you
will soon learn that with hard work
you
can make good grades
Many new students feel overwhelmed at first. However,
they
soon learn that with hard work
they
can make good grades.
Pronoun Case
Pronoun case means using the correct personal pronoun forms.
There are three forms...
She
and
I
went looking for gold
Me
and
Jane
went looking for gold
Now replace "Jane" with a subject pronoun and it becomes:
Another example:
Jane
and
John
watched the dog eat
replace the two nouns in the sentence with subject pronouns and the sentence becomes:
She
and
Him
watched the dog eat.
The teacher gave
he
and
him
a bad grade
Incorrect
:
Correct:
The teacher gave
them
a bad grade
The teacher gave bill and john a bad grade
Another example:
Never use a object pronoun for a subject
EX:
Bill
had lunch with
Jane
Incorrect:
It
had lunch with
her
Vague Pronoun Reference
There are two common kind of vague pronoun reference.
1. When there is more than one word that the pronoun might refer to.
2. When the reference to a word is implied but not stated.

Example of a vague pronoun reference when there is more than one word that the pronoun might refer to.
When the senators realized the bill would be defeated, they tried to postpone the vote but failed. It was a fiasco.
What is
it
referring to?


Correct way:
When the senators realized the bill would be defeated, they tried to postpone the vote but failed.
The entire effort
was a fiasco.
Example of When the reference is to a word that is implied but not stated.
Nancy just found out that she won the lottery, which explains her resignation.
What is
which
referring to?
Correct way:
Nancy just found out that she won the lottery, and
her sudden wealth
explains her resignation.
The importance of fixing a vague pronoun reference is to make the sentence clear.
For example:
Jerry and Owen are brothers, but he has always been taller.

In this sentence we don't know who
he
is referring to.

Possible ways to make the sentence clear.
Jerry and Owen are brothers, but Owen has always been taller.
Jerry and Owen are brothers, but the latter has always been taller.
Jerry and Owen are brothers, but the former has always been taller
She enjoys oranges, bananas, and grapes, but they are her favorite.

In this sentence we don't know what
they
are. Which ones are her favorite?
Ways to make the sentence clear.
She enjoys oranges, bananas, and grapes, but oranges are her favorite.
She enjoys oranges, bananas, and grapes, but bananas are her favorite.
She enjoys oranges, bananas, and grapes, but grapes are her favorite.
Sources
Easy writer fifth edition by Andrea A. Lunsford

http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/everyday_writer/20errors/2.html

https://www.sinclair.edu/centers/tlc/pub/handouts_worksheets/grammar_punctuation_writing/pronoun_faulty_reference.pdf

Examples of Pronouns
Incorrect Case
Incorrect case is a mistake writers make often.
The trick is to know if the pronoun should be subjective or objective.
Example
Correct: Dad and I went to the race Saturday


Incorrect: The plan proved useful for dad and I.
"I" should be "me" because it is an object of preposition.
How to Avoid the Mistake
To avoid the mistake, make sure to look determine the compound's function. If the phrase functions as a subject or a predicate noun, choose the subject case pronoun.

If the compound functions as a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition, choose an objective case pronoun.
Ex: Liz baked a cake for Paul.
Liz: Subject
Paul: Object of preposition
Another Strategy
When choosing a pronoun to be part of a compound phrase, temporarily leave out the other half of the compound. If the pronoun would be correct by itself, it is also correct as part of a compound.
Julie and I

Julie and me
went to the store.
Would you say " I went to the store." or " Me went to the store."
The trajedy deeply discouraged
Samantha and he.
Or
Samantha and him.
Would you say "The trajedy deeply discouraged him." or "The trajedy deeply discouraged he."?
https://www.owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/595/02
Sources
http://wwwnew.towson.edu/ows/ModuleCASE.htm

http://owlet.letu.edu/grammarlinks/pronouns/pronoun3s.htmlf

http://owlet.letu.edu/grammarlinks/pronouns/pronoun3d.html

http://wps.ablongman.com/long_longman_ohb_1/27/7023/1797973.cw/content/index.html
When antecedents dont agree with pronouns
Neither Annie nor Henry got
his
work done
WRONG


Annie didn't get her work done, and neither did Henry.
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