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Reform and Westward Expansion
Transcript of Reform and Westward Expansion
Democracy and the Age of Jackson
More Americans Can Vote
Used to be: white landowning men over 21
By 1828: Any white man over 21
Religion and Social Reform
Religious Revival Sweeps the Nation
Second Great Awakening
-Encourages belief that people should reach moral perfection
-Inspires social reform
The Antislavery Movement
Sought gradual or immediate end to slavery
The Women's Rights Movement
Women Have Limited Rights
Can't: vote, hold public office, gain custody of kids after divorce, own property, keep their own wages earned
-Women's labor unions ask for higher wages and more control of wages earned
-Troy Female Academy in NY offers higher education
What is Manifest Destiny?
**The U.S. was intended by God to stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean**
-Term was coined by journalist John O'Sullivan
Warm Up 9/12/13
List 5 things you know or remember about Westward Expansion.
If you don't remember anything, write about other territorial expansions we've already learned about.
Andrew Jackson Becomes President
-Representative of the "common man"
-Rags to riches story
-Military hero in War of 1812
Jackson's Native American Policies
Restricted the rights of Native Americans
Reversed treaties that guaranteed land to the Cherokees
Drove tens of thousands of Native Americans to the West
Responsible for Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
The forced march of the Cherokees from Georgia in 1838 that caused a lot suffering and death.
Tariffs Threaten National Unity
Issue during Jackson's presidency: conflict between state and federal power
High tariffs protect northern manufacturers but make Southerners have to pay more for goods
Tariffs = taxes on imported goods
South Carolina passes law nullifying tariff
Congress eased tensions and lowers tariff
**Southern distrust of fed. authority gets worse**
Religious Conflicts Surface
Separation of Church and State
-Jefferson called it a "wall of separation"
1830s: Post office does end service on Sundays
Most states forbid non-Christians from public office
Reformers Work to Improve Society
Religious reformers try to end alcohol abuse
Improve treatment of prisoners and mentally ill
Fought to improve public schools
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller
-Important to follow one's conscience
**HENRY DAVID THOREAU AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE**
-people should peacefully refuse to obey laws that were immoral
“If the machine of government is of such a nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice to another, then, I say, break the law.”
-Henry David Thoreau
“Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once? Men generally, under such a government as this, think that they ought to wait until they have persuaded the majority to alter them. They think that, if they should resist, the remedy would be worse than the evil. But it is the fault of the government itself that the remedy is worse than the evil. It makes it worse. Why is it not more apt to anticipate and provide for reform? Why does it not cherish its wise minority? Why does it cry and resist before it is hurt? Why does it not encourage its citizens to be on the alert to point out its faults, and do better than it would have them?”
-Henry David Thoreau
Slavery Causes Suffering
Problem: Americans believe their prosperity rested on the institution of slavery
-South: Cotton from slave labor
-North: Textile mills needed cotton from South
200 slave revolts in 1st half of 1800s
**Nat Turner's rebellion in 1831
Slavery Becomes a Political Issue
**Missouri Compromise of 1820**
Missouri enters as "slave state" and Maine enters as a "free state"
36 30'N latitude: divides slave territory and free territory
Friday the 13th!! Warm Up
(If you wanna be boring, label it Warm Up 9/13/13)
Write two sentences reflecting on yesterday's lesson on Jackson, his Native American policies, the reading/discussion, etc. If you were absent, write 5 things you remember about Westward Expansion.
Abolitionists Call for Freedom
William Lloyd Garrison
Made a daring escape from slavery and ran away to the North in 1838
Started an antislavery newspaper
Warm Up 9/16/13
Summarize Horace Mann's views of education in two to three sentences.
Escaped from slavery but returned to South to help others escape
Underground Railroad: network of abolitionists who led enslaved people to freedom in the North or in Canada
Known as "Black Moses"
Called for immediate emancipation and full political and social rights for African Americans
Published The Liberator = most influential abolitionist newspaper
Women Begin to Organize
1830s: Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society
-Led movement to gain in economic and political rights for women and African Americans
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
1848: Organized first women's rights
convention at Seneca Falls, NY
Wrote a Declaration of Sentiments
-"We hold these truths to be self-
evident: that all men AND WOMEN
are created equal."
Susan B. Anthony
One of the most famous women's suffrage (right to vote) activists
Right to vote wasn't achieved during the lifetimes of any of those activists. :(
Conflict Erupts With Mexico
Americans move to Mexican Texas in 1820s
-Mostly southerners with their slaves
1836: Texas wins independence from Mexico
-Republic of Texas
1845: U.S. annexes Texas as a state
-Mexicans treated like second class citizens
Mexican American War: 1846-1848
War over boundary between Texas and Mexico
Northerners opposed war
-Thought it was an attempt to extend slavery
Gold Brings Settlers to California
1848: Gold Discovered in CA
-Attracts "forty-niners" and even people from China
-People go to get rich
1850: CA enters union as free state
**Adds to growing national conflict over slavery**
Warm Up: 9/17/13
"Enslave the liberty of but one human being and the liberties of the world are put in peril."
-William Lloyd Garrison
Write two sentences describing what you think the quote means.
If you were absent Friday, write 5 things you remember about the notes on the New Republic.
Warm Up: 9/18/13
Write a two-sentence summary of the New Republic (Washington's presidency through Monroe's presidency).
Warm Up: 9/19/13
Yay! Last Warm Up of Unit 2!
Write down three things you are going to focus on WHEN you study for your test that's on Monday.
Notice that I said WHEN you study not IF you study. :-P
Americans Win: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-Rio Grande is the southern border of Texas
-Mexico gives U.S. land including CA and parts of southwest states
(Known as Mexican Cession)