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Immune System

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N Dakdouki

on 16 March 2013

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Transcript of Immune System

The immune system is a network of cells, organs, and tissues that make up the body's defenses against harmful organisms and diseases. ThE
lMmUnE
sYsTeM Pathogens A pathogen is any virus, bacteria, fungi, or prion that causes disease.
Also known as a germ. Proteins Different kinds of large molecules which each have their own specialized functions. Proteins in the blood detect pathogens and alert the rest of the immune system that there is an intruder. Different Cells and proteins of the Immune System It all starts with the complement system. Next, the white blood cells come into action White blood cells are found in blood and in lymph. There are many different kinds of white blood cells. There are two main categories, phagocytes and lymphocytes. Granulocytes are the smallest and fastest reacting kinds of phagocytes.
Once they "eat" a pathogen, they die. Introduction Phagocytes find and "eat" pathogens and dead body cells. These are part of the innate immune system.There are three types of phagocytes.
–Granulocytes
–Macrophages
–Dendritic cells.
–Natural killer cells (or NK cells) Disease Parts of the Immune System Bone Marrow Thymus Spleen Lymph Nodes Leukemia Macrophages are the "big eaters."
They are slow and they stay in one area.
They can eat up to 100 pathogens before dying.
Macrophages come from monocytes that have exited the bloodstream. Innate and Adaptive Immunity Dendritic cells are also "eaters"
They also present antigens to helper T cells, and they link the innate and adaptive immune system.s
Denditic cells also come from monocytes that have exited the bloodstream. There are two branches of the immune system.
-innate immunity
-adaptive immunity.
Both have humoral and cell-mediated parts. The innate immune system is found in almost every single plant, animal, fungi, insect.
It is non-specific, and does not change over the course of someone's life. Say a pathogen has entered your body. Adaptive immunity is only found in jawed vertebrates.
Activated by the innate immune system.
Learns, remembers, and recognizes pathogens it has fought before and deals with them faster the second time around. There are two important types of lymphocytes.
-T cells
-B cells
These are part of the adaptive immune system. NK cells move around the bloodstream and detect and kill infected and unhealthy cells. There is also more than one type of T cell. The most important are:
-helper T cells
-cytotoxic T cells The helper T cells activate other cells, but must be activated first.
They are activated by dendritic cells. When a dendritic cell "eats" a pathogen, it breaks it down and puts a piece of the pathogen, known as an antigen, on the outside of the cell.
Then the dendritic cell finds a T cell and presents the antigen to it.
The T cell is now activated. Once activated, the T cell begins cloning itself into two types of T cells.
Memory T cells remember the pathogen, so it can be dealt with easier if it comes back
Effector T cells, the other clones, go around and activate other cells in the immune system, telling them that there is a problem. When a cytotoxic T cell is activated by an activated helper T cell, it begins looking for unhealthy, infected cells, and it kills them.
Their job is similar to the NK cells. B cells must be activated by helper T cells
Once activated, they are sensitive to the pathogen they were activated for
When they next find the matching pathogen, they clone themselves into two types of B cells.
-plasma B cells
-memory B cells Plasma B cells make antibodies for that specific pathogen. Antibodies are proteins that attach themselves to their corresponding pathogen
They make it harder for the pathogen to move, infect other cells, and they attract phagocytes to the pathogen. Memory B cells do the same as memory T cells
They remember the pathogen that was met so it can be dealt with easier the next time it comes back. - disease of the white blood cells
- abnormal white blood cells that don't function properly
- bone marrow produces too many white blood cells
- body's defense doesn't work properly due to the useless cells, therefore more susceptible to diseases
- since bone marrow is producing less red blood cells and platelets, less oxygen is carried to the body, and bleeding lasts longer - soft, spongy tissue inside a bone
- red marrow in charge of producing red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells including granulocytes, lymphocytes (more in Thymus), and macrophages
- bone marrow contains stem cells, immature cells - are organs spread throughout the body
- purpose is to filter lymphatic fluid
- remove dead cells, eliminate bacteria and viruses
- contains many white blood cells, which causes the lymph node to swell if there is a disease - found below the neck
- purpose is to mature T-cells
- starts production of cells in bone marrow (thymocytes)
- cells transported to thymus through bloodstream
- cell is 'programmed' to attack pathogens
- when matured, cells are sent through bloodstreams to gather up in lymph nodes
- used mostly during adolescence, not much during adulthood - found on the left side of the upper abdomen, behind the stomach
- purpose is to filter blood and store platelets
- gets rid of dead red blood cells
- has T-cells and B-cells to get rid of any diseases
- holds one third of the body's platelets, ready to release in case of severe bleeding Physical Barriers - first line of defense against diseases
- skin covers outside of the body, prevents bacteria from entering our bodies
- mucous membranes line the parts inside the body that come into contact with air
- creates mucus that prevents body from drying out, traps pathogens
- mucus membranes contain cilia (tiny hairs) that help move mucus up airways, out of the body
- stomach acids destroy harmful microbes that make it to the stomach
- tears, urine, and saliva contain enzymes which destroy invaders
- sneezing and coughing clear up airways like the nose and throat - found in the back of the throat
- purpose is to provide protection against harmful attackers
- made up of lymphoid tissue, contains many lymphocytes
- job is similar to that of a physical barrier Tonsils THE END a
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