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Transcript of Narrative
settings Who is narrating?
From whose perspective
is the fictive world presented? Franz K. Stanzel: Gérald Genette: Narrative Situations first-person narrator third-person narrator figural narrative situation neutral scenic narration Voice Focalisation Who speaks? Who perceives? From which perspective? In which part of the narrative? covert
intradiegetic Reliability external
focalisation Is the narrator credible? the "unreliable narrator" Textual Signals
1. Factual Contradictions
contradictions between narrator's words & acts,
within narrator's comments,
between self-image and image by others,
in his/ her version of events and those of others?
addresses to the reader: narrator trying to justify himself or to manipulate?
narrator insisting on his/her credibility?
lying by omission
one event does not lead to another,
there are significant temporal or logical gaps?
2. lack of objectivity:
emotional involvement in the events?
repetition of subjective comments?
3. ideological unreliability:
questionable norms, values, worldview?
4. signals in the text:
syntax (incomplete sentences? hesitations?...)
reference to memory lapses, mental illness...? Wayne Booth (1983) narrating I experiencing I
I-as-protagonist I-as-witness omnipresent, omniscient reflector figure dialogue
action Edgar Allan Poe: "The Tell-Tale Heart"
1. Describe how the story is related:
a) Stanzel's model: Which narrative situation prevails?
b) Genette's model: Who speaks to whom from which
position and in which way? (Voice)
Who perceives what in which way? (Focalization)
2. How reliable or unreliable is the narrator? Why?