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APHuG Chapter 3
Transcript of APHuG Chapter 3
Environmental Comfort Chapter 3 Key Issue 1 Why Do People Migrate? Cynical Movement - movement away from home for a short period -Commuting, Nomadism, Seasonal Periodic Movement - Movement away from home for a long time -Military Migration - permanent movement to a new location Immigration - migration to a new country Emigration - moving from a new country Net Migration the difference Ravenstein's Laws of Migration Reasons Migrant Characteristics Distance Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration The majority of migrants move a short distance Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations Urban migrants are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults Organized into three groups Global Migration Patterns Most migrate for economic reasons Cultural and Environmental factors Three Types of Push-Pull Factors Cultural Push-Pull Factors Forced international migration has historically occurred for two reasons
Political Instability Economic Push- Pull Factors Relative attractiveness of a region can shift with economic change Environmental Push-Pull Factors Pulled toward physically attractive regions pushed from hazards ones
Migrants are also pushed from their homes by adverse physical conditions Refugees: people who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution Push Factors- indues people to leave their current location Pull Factors - induces people to move into a new location Intervening Obstacles Where migrants go is not always their desired destination
Environmental or cultural features that hinder migration
In the past intervening obstacles were environmental Mountains deserts etc.
Bodies of water have been important intervening obstacles as well as language Distances Traveled Ravenstein's two main points about distance 1.) Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country 2.) Long distance migrant to other countries head for major economies International VS. Interregional Migration International Migration - permanent movement from one country to another Internal Migration - internal movement with in the same country Interregional migration - Moving from one region to another Intraregional Migration - movement with in one region Two Types of Migration 1.) Forced Migration - Someone in a position of power makes people move with out giving them a choice
- involuntary migration 2.) Voluntary Migration - Migrants weigh push/pull factors to decide first to emigrate from their home country Step Migration- when migrants follow a part or steps towards a final destination Chain Migration - When a migrant communicates to family to encourage them to come Migration Transition Change in migration according to demographic transition Stage 1 Unlikely to migrate permanently Stage 2 International migration ; lots of emigration Destinations of the international migrants leaving the stage 2 countries in search of economic opportunities Stage 3 &4 Characteristics of Migrants 1.) Most long distance migrants are males 2.) Long distance migrants are mainly single young adults instead of families and children 3.) 40% are young adults seeking work 4.) Only 5% are over 65 5.) People with higher levels of education are more likely to make longer moves 6.) People who have friends/relatives who have migrated to other areas are more likely to migrate Mexican Immigration The destination of choice with in the US is overwhelmingly states that border Mexico But most immigrants originate NOT from Mexico's Northern states but from Interior states Because farm work is seasonal, the greatest number of Mexicans head north to the US in the autumn and return home in the spring Theoretical Lee's Model of Migration PUSH PULL - - - - - + + Intervening Obstacals Obstacals and Opportunities + + + + - - + Actual Sample Guatemala PUSH -Conflict -War +Culture +Family/ Friends -Limited Opportunities -Low Wages -Poor Government -Cultural Persicution Intervening Obstacles - Bodies of Water - Money -Government Issues - Different Language -Distance Opportunities + Better Lives + More Jobs + Jobs Natives Don't Want United States PULL + Free Government -Housing +Economic Gain +Physically Attractive - Citizenship + More Jobs - Culture + Higher Wages +Political Migration Key Issue 2 Where are Migrants Distributed? Global Migration Patterns Between 1500 and 1950 major global migration flows were influenced largely by : 1.) Exploration 2.) Colonization 3.) The Atlantic Slave Trade Net In-Migration Pattern refers to migration coming from LDCs to MDCs United States , Oceania, & Europe Net Out- Migration Patter referring to migrants leaving LDCs and traveling to MDCs Asia, Latin America, & Africa U.S. Immigration Patterns Three areas of migration: First Era Initial Settlement of colonies Europeans, English, & Africans 19 Century th Second Era Third Era Mid 19 -> Early 20 century th th Europeans Latin America 1970 -> Present Immigration to American colonies & newly independent U.S. came from two sources 19 Century Immigration from Europe th Germany sent the larges number of immigrants It Peaked at several points: 1.) 1840s & 1850s 2.) 1870s 3.) 1880s 4.) 1900 - 1914 3/4 came from Ireland or Germany Western Europe Swedes and Norwegians join West Europe and Enter Stage 2 2/3 from Southern and Eastern Europe Settlers also went to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Southern Africa, and southern South America Immigration to the United States dropped drastically in the 1930s and '40s during WWII and the Great Depression Mid 19 -> Early 20 century 1970 -> Present Early 1990's Unusually large number of Immigrants came from Mexico and other Latin American countries Europe Emigration was caused by rapid population growth as the countries entered Stage 2 Europeans imposed their political domination on existing populations and injected their cultural values into the people Today's conflict Many conflicts result from past practices by Europeans Economies became based on extracting resources for export to Europe rather than using those resources to build a local industry Asia and Africa Destination of Immigrants in the United States 1/5 go to California 1/6 go to New York Individual states attract immigrants from different countries Mexico -> Texas Mexico -> California Dominican Republic -> Florida/ New York China -> California Cuba -> Florida Unauthorized Immigrants People who enter a country with out legal documents Chain Migration When one immigrant goes somewhere and then sends for their family members U.S. / Mexico Border 3,141 km long Sparsely inhabited Represents separation of an LDC and a MDC Border Control "Heavily Guarded" Key Issue 3 Why do Migrants Face Obstacles? Main Obstacles are Cultural There are mainly two -hostile attitudes -Gaining Permition Immigration Policies of Host Countries Guest Workers US Established a quota system Western Europe and Middle East = Guest Workers Brain Drain - The talented/skillful emigrate -people from LDCs who obtain jobs in Europe and the Middle East Guest Workers take the low income jobs The pay is low but still min wage since they are protected by min wage job laws, pays better than at home though The native country benefits as well since it reduces unemployment and makes the countries econ better Economic Migrants Refugees -not admitted unless they posses a special skill -forced -revived special priorities US Attitude Toward Migrants Intensified when majority of immigrants no longer came from North/Western Europe Government Study concluded popular attitudes towards migrants from South/Eastern Europe we negative since people believed them to be racially inferior Attitudes toward Guest Workers Europe- Guest Workers suffer poor social conditions France/Germany, etc. - dislike/hate and attack guest workers Middle East- Fear Culture loss Key Issue 4 Why Do People Migrate within a Country? Coming Soon... Refugees Political Refugee a person who has a well found fear of being prosecuted for reasons of race religion membership of a social group or political power and is unwilling to avail himself to the protection of the country Economic Refugee Someone who is seeking a higher material standard of living Environmental refugee Someone fleeing the destruction of a natural disaster Refugee Characteristics -Takes only what he can carry -Has no clear destination -Hopes to return home -Is part of an unstratified group -Initial Journey is on foot or other primitive form of travel -Lacks documentation Impacts of refugee populations Environmental Deforestation Land degradation Water pollution Social Disease Crime / Social Strife Famine Solutions to the Refugee Crisis Voluntary repatriation Local Resettlement Resettlement