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Phoenix Mars Lander
Transcript of Phoenix Mars Lander
Gather information/define the climate of Mars
Gather information/define the geology of Mars
Give us enough knowledge to explore Mars in person.  Main Objective In 2002, the Mars Odyssey Orbiter discovered large quantities of underground ice around its North Pole. The Phoenix Mars Lander was sent to that area to dig through the top soil and to the ice for analysis.  (made later) General Information It is not absolutely certain, but they believe that Phoenix did find liquid water on the surface. The following picture has details.  Although it is nearly impossible to see, the two spheres in the first picture are thought to be liquid water droplets, which seem to merge, showing that there is liquid water on Mars.  The Phoenix was sent into space using a Boeing Delta II 7925 launch vehicle. 
It was launched on August 4, 2007 at 5:26:34 a.m. 
The lander drifted through space for about ten months on its way to Mars.
It landed on Mars on May 25, 2008 in the Green Valley of Vastitas Borealis.  The Phoenix had many instruments on board, but it primarily used these: Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer or TEGA (combination of a high-temperature "oven" and mass spectrometer) 
The oven heats slowly heats different samples of soil up to 1800 degrees Fahrenheit. This records the freezing and boiling points of the substances within.
Once most of the substances turn to gas, it is transferred to the mass spectrometer, which measures the mass, quantity, and concentration of the included substances.  Robotic arm (to dig trenches and/or deliver ice to different instuments) 
Camera for the robotic arm  Mars Descent Imager or MARDI (takes wide-angle, color images during the last three days of the descent down to Mars)  Meteorological Station or MET (uses temperature and pressure sensors as well as a light detection instrument to record weather patterns and water cycles in the arctic)  Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (characterizes soil to find the amount of pH, and the concentration of minerals and dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. It also determines the ice and water content, and the speed that heat and water vapor can penetrate the soil.)  In 2010, this mission was abandoned after all communications with the lander failed. 
During the martian winter, to much dry ice accumulated on the solar panels of the spacecraft, and destroyed them. Without power, the Phoenix soon died.  Discoveries Results from the MET show that, "Not only did we find water ice, as expected, but the soil chemistry and minerals we observed lead us to believe this site had a wetter and warmer climate in the recent past -- the last few million years -- and could again in the future."-Peter Smith  The TEGA found a new chemical called perchlorate, which accounts for a few tenths of most of the soil samples taken. Perchlorate strongly attracts water, and can combine with it to produce a brine that has a liquid state at normal Martian temperatures. It can be used to pull humidity from the air or generate oxygen. It might even be used for rocket fuel, so this substance would be a very important resource if we try to populate Mars.  The MET also found ice clouds and precipitation similar to Earth's, like snow. It is probable that this could create a seasonal build-up of water ice.  . Hello Bibliography "Did Phoenix Mars Lander find liquid water? - Technology & science - Space - Mars | NBC News." Breaking News & Top Stories - World News, US & Local | NBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29634476/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/did-phoenix-mars-lander-find-liquid-water/#.UGzLEGCf-mc>. "NASA - Phoenix ." NASA - Home . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/phoenix/main/index.html>. "Phoenix Mars Lander." Windows to the Universe. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://www.windows2universe.org/space_missions/mars/phoenix_mars_lander/phoenix_mars_lander.html>. "Phoenix Mars Mission - Home." Phoenix Mars Mission - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://phoenix.lpl.arizona.edu/index.php>. "When did phoenix land on mars???? - Yahoo! Answers." Yahoo! Answers - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080614023252AAMxNJJ>. 1.
5. Photo: see 1 in bibliography Makeup of Perchlorate Make up of Perchlorate THE END